Category Archives: Responsive Web Design

Understanding ARIA Click Button to Show or Hide Content Example Code

Understanding ARIA

ARIA stands for "Accessible Rich Internet Applications". Also known as the WAI-ARIA standard, it is a standard developed to help coders to provide proper semantics for custom widgets and to make them accessible, usable, and interoperable with assistive technologies for people with disabilities. To be clear, ARIA doesn't add functionality to an object. It adds roles and states that assist in identifying the intent and state of an object. However, usually JavaScript code is still needed to add any dynamic action to that object. I state this clearly at the top of this post because at first, I was under the impression that ARIA also added certain functionalities to HTML objects and was seriously disappointed when I found out otherwise. For example, when ARIA is used on a button that hides and shows content in a div, it only defines the roles and states of the button and corresponding div. JavaScript is still needed to do that work of hiding and showing the div in question.

Example Code

Here is an example of correctly implementing ARIA controls when making a button that hides and shows a div on the click of your mouse. It also binds the space bar and enter key to the div as well, so pressing either of those keys toggles the visibility of the div as well. Without any further ado, the code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8" />
<title>Aria Examples</title>
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.2.1/jquery.min.js"></script>

<style>
div.topic {
    display: none;
    margin-bottom: 1em;
    padding: .25em;
    border: black thin solid;
    background-color: #EEEEFF;
    width: 40em;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<p class="button">
    <button id="button1" class="buttonControl" aria-controls="t1" aria-expanded="false"><span>Show</span> Topic 1</button>
</p>

<div id="t1" class="topic" role="region" tabindex="-1" >
    Topic 1 is all about being Topic 1 and may or may not have anything to do with other topics.
</div>

<script>
$(document).ready(function() {

   var hs1 = new hideShow('button1');
  // var hs2 = new hideShow('button2');
  // var hs3 = new hideShow('button3');
  // var hs4 = new hideShow('button4');
 
}); // end ready()

//
// function hideShow() is the constructor for a hideShow widget. it accepts the html ID of
// an element to attach to.
//
// @param(id string) id is the html ID of the element to attach to
//
// @return N/A
//
function hideShow(id) {

   this.$id = $('#' + id);
   this.$region = $('#' + this.$id.attr('aria-controls'));

   this.keys = {
               enter: 13,
               space: 32
               };

   this.toggleSpeed = 100;

   // bind handlers
   this.bindHandlers();

} // end hidShow() constructor

//
// Function bindHandlers() is a member function to bind event handlers to the hideShow region
//
// return N/A
//
hideShow.prototype.bindHandlers = function() {

   var thisObj = this;

   this.$id.click(function(e) {

      thisObj.toggleRegion();

      e.stopPropagation();
      return false;
   });
}

//
// Function toggleRegion() is a member function to toggle the display of the hideShow region
//
// return N/A
//
hideShow.prototype.toggleRegion = function() {

      var thisObj = this;

    // toggle the region
    this.$region.slideToggle(this.toggleSpeed, function() {

      if ($(this).attr('aria-expanded') == 'false') { // region is collapsed

        // update the aria-expanded attribute of the region
        $(this).attr('aria-expanded', 'true');

        // move focus to the region
        $(this).focus();

        // update the button label
        thisObj.$id.find('span').html('Hide');

      }
      else { // region is expanded

        // update the aria-expanded attribute of the region
        $(this).attr('aria-expanded', 'false');

        // update the button label
        thisObj.$id.find('span').html('Show');
      }
    });

} // end toggleRegion()
</script>
</body>
</html>

Thank you oaa-accessibility.org for providing me with enough knowledge to create and use the above example! They have the best example code for ARIA usage that I could find online after many Google searches. See their complete list of example ARIA examples at http://oaa-accessibility.org/

ARIA and WordPress

I noticed ARIA controls for the first time in the header.php file for my WordPress theme. I was trying to fix a mobile navigation menu and thought couldn't find the code that makes the menu appear on mobile devices when the button is clicked and thought ARIA had something to do with it. I was basically wrong. ARIA code was only present to mark the navigation menu and make it's role and states readily accessible. It is after all an accessibility feature.

Summary

So ARIA and the WAI-ARIA standard are used to enable more accessible HTML markup for disabled people. While it is a great initiative, it doesn't add much dynamic functionality to your HTML objects, JavaScript is still needed for that. ARIA combined with HTML, CSS and JavaScript can be used to make accessible web pages more user-friendly.

Including Responsive Videos in WordPress Posts

I've done a lot of things with WordPress to-date, but one thing I haven't done much with is videos. I was commissioned to build a plugin to embed responsive videos into WordPress posts. Naturally I started trying to figure out how to embed a simple Vimeo video into a post, this post right here in fact. I went to Vimeo.com and got the link for one of the videos my client is using. I am going to post just that plain text link on the next line below:

...and presto-magico! WordPress did most of the work for me! As you can see the video showed up just from me copy and pasting the Vimeo URL in the post! For example, I posted "https:// vimeo.com/ 155235235" without the quotes or spaces. I just added spaces so WordPress wouldn't make it a video like it did above.

Therefore, the only task left to me is to make the videos responsive.

How to make videos responsive in WordPress

The most basic method, which you may want to use if you only need to apply this fix to one or two videos on your site,  is to add a wrapper div to your video url when you insert it int o your blog post like this:

<div class="video-wrap"> VIDEO URL GOES HERE! </div>

Then add the following CSS to your theme's main style sheet, style.css:

.video-wrap{
    position: relative;
    padding-bottom: 56.25%;
    height: 0;
    overflow: hidden;
}
.video-wrap iframe, .video-wrap object, .video-wrap embed, .video-wrap video {
    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
}

That's all you have to do if you don't mind making manual edits each time you add a video to your blog.

Making a Simple WordPress Plugin to Make Videos Responsive

The logical option to use if you regularly embed videos in your WordPress site, is to create a very simple plugin that hooks into WordPress while it embeds videos and automatically wraps the embed code inside of a div and then applies style to that div to accomplish the same effect we did above without having to make changes each time we add a new video. Here is how:

Add the following code to a new php file and name it whatever you want to call your custom plugin or call it jafty-responsive-video-embedder as I did here:

<?php
/*
Plugin Name: Jafty Responsive Video Embedder
Plugin URI: http://jafty.com

Description: Adds a wrapper div around embedded videos and applies mobile style to them so they are responsive at all times regardless of the surrounding HTML.

Author: Ian L. of Jafty.com
Author URI: http://jafty.com

Version: 1.0.0

License: GNU General Public License v2.0
License URI: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php
*/

//Code to make Videos more responsive:
function make_video_responsive( $html ) {
    return '<div class="video-wrap">' . $html . '</div>';
}
 
add_filter( 'embed_oembed_html', 'make_video_responsive', 10, 3 );
add_filter( 'video_embed_html', 'make_video_responsive' ); // Jetpack

function add_video_css(){
wp_enqueue_style("videocss", "/wp-content/plugins/outer-gain-engine/video.css");
}

add_action('wp_enqueue_scripts', 'add_video_css');

?>

Then create a file named video.css and copy and paste the follocing CSS code into it:

.video-wrap{
    position: relative;
    padding-bottom: 56.25%;
    height: 0;
    overflow: hidden;
}
.video-wrap iframe, .video-wrap object, .video-wrap embed, .video-wrap video {
    position: absolute;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
}

Summary

That's all there is to it. A simple, yet handy, plugin or fix for your WordPress videos. Feel free to modify the code to fit your individual needs. Good Luck!

How to Make a Simple Pure JavaScript Popup Window

If you are a minimalist like me, you may appreciate this technique of making a simple JavaScript pop up window with nothing but HTML, CSS and JavaScript. It has no JQuery or other code other than those just mentioned.

See it Live

Here is a live version with just a little extra Style added:

http://jafty.com/pop.html

The Code

Now here is the simple code without much extra CSS style to keep it simple. If you copy and paste this into a blank HTML document, you will get a simple JavaScript working popup window:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Pure JavaScript Popup</title>
</head>
<body>

<!--This is the popup code for when the div is clicked:-->
<script>
function iconPop(){
    document.getElementById('popcontent').innerHTML="You may click the X in the lower right corner to close this window or you may click outside of this window to close it as well.";
    document.getElementById('thepopup').style.display="block";
    document.getElementById('blackoutdiv').style.display="block";
}//end iconPop JS function

function iconUnPop(){
    document.getElementById('thepopup').style.display="none";
    document.getElementById('blackoutdiv').style.display="none";
}
</script>
<!--this is the blackout div that blacks out the rest of the page when popup is popped:-->
<div onclick="iconUnPop();" id="blackoutdiv" style="position:absolute; width:100%; height:100%; top:0px; left:0px;background-color:#222;opacity:0.6;z-index:9999;display:none"></div>

<!--this is the popup html:-->
<div id="thepopup" style="position:absolute; width:300px; height:150px; top:150px; left:50%; margin-left:-155px;border: 5px solid orange;background-color:white;z-index:99999;padding:15px;-webkit-border-radius:5px;border-radius:5px;display:none;"><span onclick="iconUnPop();" style="position:absolute;bottom:5px;right:5px;color:red;font-weight:bold;cursor:pointer" title="Close Window!">-X-</span><span id="popcontent"></span></div>
<!--End pop up code when icon's clicked-->

    
    <!--this is the div that when clicked, causes the popup window to appear:-->
    <div onclick="iconPop();" style="position:relative;top:75px;left:50%;margin-left:-170px;width:300px;height:200px;border:5px solid orange;-webkit-border-radius:5px;border-radius:5px;padding:30px;background-color:yellow;color:black">Click this div to open the Pure JavaScript Popup!</div>

</body>
</html>

Summary

That's really all there is to it. If you like the live version better, you can right click on the demo and select "view-source" and copy and paste that code into your own blank HTML document.

Building a Custom WordPress Navigation Menu Plugin

This is a semi-advanced WordPress tutorial so you should have a little bit of existing knowledge of WordPress if you want to be able to understand the concepts involved. I will try to make it as easy to follow as possible none-the-less.

We are just going to dive right in a create a new Plugin. I'll be calling the plugin Jafty-Nav, you can follow suit if you wish to keep things simple or give it your own name if you feel comfortable making such changes.

Create a New Plugin

<?php
/**
* Plugin Name: Jafty Top Nav Plugin
* Plugin URI: http://jafty.com/blog/?p=9813
* Description: A Plugin that adds a custom top navigation menu to WordPress.
* Version: 1.0
* Author: Ian L. of Jafty.com
* Author URI: http://jafty.com
* License: GPL2
*/

Register a New Menu Location with WordPress

Add this PHP code to your plugin file you created above:

<?php
add_action('after_setup_theme', 'register_jafty_menu');
function register_jafty_menu(){
  register_nav_menu('jafty-top-nav', __('Primary Jafty Menu', 'jafty-top-nav-plugin'));
}
?>

Now that is actually enough to create a simple plugin. The plugin will add a menu location to wp-admin and that's it, but we'll build on it after we install it. So go ahead and install the plugin by putting it into a folder named "jafty-top-nav-plugin" and naming the file "index.php". Then upload to your WordPress plugins directory. Activate the Jafty Top Nav Plugin then go to your admin and click on "Appearance/Menus" then select the "Manage Locations" tab and you'll see the new menu location your plugin as added to the admin like in the image below.

menuLOC

Placing a new top nav in your theme

The next task is to edit your current WordPress theme to work with the Jafty Top Nav Plugin. You'll need to create a new header file and edit your page, post and/or home page templates to contain your new top navigation menu. Here is how:

  1. Go into your current theme's folder and download a copy of the header.php file to your desktop and rename it header-jafty.php.
  2. open header-jafty.php in notepad and find the section that looks something like this:<nav id="site-navigation" class="main-navigation" role="navigation">
    <button class="menu-toggle" aria-controls="primary-menu" aria-expanded="false"><?php esc_html_e( 'Primary Menu', 'outer-gain-dev' ); ?></button>
    <?php wp_nav_menu( array( 'theme_location' => 'menu-1', 'menu_id' => 'primary-menu' ) ); ?>
    </nav>
  3. Inside the code within the Nav tag in your header-jafty.php file, change the theme_location value to 'jafty-top-nav' and save the file.
  4. Now upload your header-jafty.php file to your active theme's folder.
  5. Next you'll want to add the new header to your template files, Some templates you might want to do this too are front-page.php, single.php, page.php and any custom page templates in your theme or child theme you might have. The process is very similar for adding the new header to any of the files, so I'll just demonstrate on the home page template file, front-page.php. Open the template file in your notepad and near the top of the code you should see something like this:
    get_header();
    or you may have something like this instead:
    get_template_part('templates/header.php');
    Regardless which you have, replace the line with:
    get_header('jafty');
    and that will call your new header.jafty.php template into the page template so your customized header will be shown.
  6. Save and upload your altered template file and repeat for all necessary page and post templates until you have your new top nav menu at the top of all desired pages and/or posts throughout your entire WordPress site.

Now that we have more control of it, let's customize that ugly top nav!

Customizing the WP Navigation Menu

It's time to get down and dirty with some real-world customization of the top navigation menu in WordPress. We are not just doing some simple CSS changes here, we are talking about a complete rewrite of the navigation system. This is why I went with a plugin for this. Now I had to find what WordPress core functions I could use to alter the menu completely. My goal is to make a menu similar to the one at Stripe.com, which is not a WordPress site by the way. I just love the dynamic drop downs that fade in and out and their use of icons in the sub-menu items. I'll get to how I duplicated all of that later on, first we need to know how to rebuild the entire menu structure because the stripe.com style menu is nothing like a standard WordPress menu. Here's what I figured out:

 

First we need to be able to retrieve our custom navigation links from the WordPress backend. Remember earlier we created a menu location? Well, we need to retrieve the menu assigned to that particular location in WordPress. Therefore the first thing we want to do is make sure there is a menu assigned to the "Primary Jafty Menu". You could pick one from the drop down, but we want to make a new one that is sure to have both main menu items and sub menu items so we can adequately test our menu when it's complete. Therefore we locate the "Primary Jafty Menu" and click the link to the right of it that reads "Use New Menu" as I've circled in red in the below image:

menuLOC2

When creating the new Primary Jafty Menu, give it a name of "Jafty 1". It's best to do everything exactly as I have done just to be sure you don't have any conflicts. You can always change names and such after you have a completed working plugin. When creating the menu, make sure to add at least 2 main menu items with at least 2 sub menu items each so we can test the drop down effects. Here is an image of the one I made for testing. If you don't have enough pages or posts to make that many links, don't worry, just use two real links for the main menu items and click on "custom links" and create outside links for all of your sub menu items as I have done in the below image:

menustructure

In the above image, "site settings" and "Hello world!" represent our two main menu items and the sub links rest below them indented to show their sub-link status. Notice I have "Primary Jafty Menu" checked under "Menu Setings" too. Once you have your menu, be sure you save it. Now we can return to developing our plugin!

Retrieve Menu and Sub Menu Items from WordPress Admin

It is time to develop some custom WordPress code to extract out menu items and sub-menu items from the database. Lucky for us, WordPress has some built-in core functions to assist us. Here is the code I come up with to extract all menu and sub-menu items for the "Jafty Primary Menu" from the database to display them on the front-end:

<?php
      $menuLocations = get_nav_menu_locations(); // Get nav locations
      $menuID = $menuLocations['jafty-top-nav']; //menu assigned to Jafty Primary Menu
      $theNav = wp_get_nav_menu_items($menuID);
                
                    foreach ($theNav as $navItem) {
                        //get the url for the link:
                        $navURL = $navItem->url;
                        //get the nav link text/title:
                        $navTXT = $navItem->title;
                        //Get the nav link's ID:
                        $navID = $navItem->ID;
                        //Get menu item parent(will be 0 if main link or parent ID if it's a sub link):
                        $navParent  = $navItem->menu_item_parent;
                        echo "ID: $navID, $navTXT, $navParent, $navURL<br />";
                    //echo '<li class="has-dropdown gallery" data-content="about"><a href="'.$navURL.'" title="'.$navItem->title.'">'.$navTXT.'</a></li>';
                    }
 ?>

The above code will go in out header file named header-jafty.php. Lets examine the code so you understand what it does.

The first line:

$menuLocations = get_nav_menu_locations(); // Get nav locations

as the comment says afterwards, it gets the navigation menu locations stored in WordPress. We added one of these in the beginning of the tutorial using the register_nav_menu function.

The second line reads:

$menuID = $menuLocations['jafty-top-nav']; //menu assigned to 'Primary Jafty Menu'

This line fetches the ID of the menu currently assigned to the menu location we created in the plugin file, "Primary Jafty Menu". We then use the id in the next line that reads:

$theNav = wp_get_nav_menu_items($menuID);

We now have a WordPress menu object stored in $theNav. If you do a print_r($theNav) command in PHP, you would see that the menu object holds all sorts of information about the menu we created earlier. However, we only need four key pieces of information from the menu object. We need to get:

  1. The Link URL
  2. The Link Text
  3. The Link ID
  4. The Link's Parent ID in case it is a sub-menu item.

We can get the four pieces of information we need using a foreach loop on the $theNav object like so:

     foreach ($theNav as $navItem) {
                        //get the url for the link:
                        $navURL = $navItem->url;
                        //get the nav link text/title:
                        $navTXT = $navItem->title;
                        //Get the nav link's ID:
                        $navID = $navItem->ID;
                        //Get menu item parent(will be 0 if main link or parent ID if it's a sub link):
                        $navParent  = $navItem->menu_item_parent;
                        echo "ID: $navID, $navTXT, $navParent, $navURL<br />";
                    //echo '<li class="has-dropdown gallery" data-content="about"><a href="'.$navURL.'" title="'.$navItem->title.'">'.$navTXT.'</a></li>';
                    }

We now have all the information we need about the menu items after running the above foreach loop on the menu object. We have the link text, URL, ID and Parent ID. It's important to note that the parent ID will always be 0 if the link is a main menu item and we can determine if the link is a sub-menu item if the parent ID is anything other than zero. Then we know which link to put the sub-link under by matching the sub-link's parent ID to the ID of the main link item. Pretty simply really, once you get accustomed to it.

Now we need to open our header-jafty.php file and find the line that reads something similar to:

<?php wp_nav_menu( array( 'theme_location' => 'jafty-top-nav', 'menu_id' => 'primary-menu' ) ); ?>

And replace it with the code we wrote above:

<?php
$menuLocations = get_nav_menu_locations(); // Get nav locations
$menuID = $menuLocations['jafty-top-nav']; // Get the *primary* menu ID
$theNav = wp_get_nav_menu_items($menuID);

foreach ($theNav as $navItem) {
//get the url for the link:
$navURL = $navItem->url;
//get the nav link text/title:
$navTXT = $navItem->title;
//Get the nav link's ID:
$navID = $navItem->ID;
//Get menu item parent(will be 0 if main link or parent ID if it's a sub link):
$navParent  = $navItem->menu_item_parent;
echo "ID: $navID, $navTXT, $navParent, $navURL<br />";
//echo '<li class="has-dropdown gallery" data-content="about"><a href="'.$navURL.'" title="'.$navItem->title.'">'.$navTXT.'</a></li>';
}
?>

Now save your header-jafty.php file and upload it to your active theme's folder and refresh your home page. You should see the following information printed in the header area of your site instead of a top nav now:

ID: 47, Site Settings, 0, http://dev.outergain.com/site-settings/
ID: 49, Jafty Interactive, 47, http://jafty.com
ID: 50, Jafty Blog, 47, http://jafty.com/blog
ID: 48, Hello world!, 0, http://dev.outergain.com/2016/12/30/hello-world/
ID: 51, Yahoo Search, 48, http://yahoo.com
ID: 52, Google Search, 48, http://google.com

As you can see my site returned 6 lines of text in the header, one for each of the two main menu items and one for each of the four sub-menu items in the menu I created in wp-admin. Each of the lines above contains the main ID first, followed by the link text, then the parent ID and finally the link text. I highlighted the parent IDs in blue so you can see how the two main menu items have a parent ID of zero while the other four have parent IDs equal to the two main menu items with zero for parent ID. Make sense? I hope so:-)

For all you professional WordPress plugin developers, I can probably stop there. Now you have enough to make your own custom top navigation menu for your WordPress theme. You clearly don't need to do this as a plugin, in fact, it would normally done by adding the plugin code to functions.php in the current theme instead. I am making it a plugin just as a learning exercise.

You can use the information it printed in your header to figure out how to add in the HTML and CSS for any type of custom nav you desire, or you can read on to see how I recreated the stripe.com-like top nav for one of my clients.

Make a Static Top Navigation Menu as a Demo

Before we go about coding the menu into WordPress, I like to create a static version first. I created mine based on looking at the top nav found on Stripe.com. You can click the link to see what I mean. I didn't copy it by any means, but I did use it as a model for creating a similar one with similar transition effects. In the static demo, I didn't create great detail in the drop downs. Instead I concentrated on getting the transition effects and infrastructure perfect. I can worry about making the content of the dropdown boxes look pretty when I code it into the actual WordPress site. Here is my static demo: http://jafty.com/nav_demo

I won't post all of the code to my static navigation menu demo here but you may feel free to use the link provided and use your browser's view source option to see how I made it and copy it if you so desire.

 

 

 

The WordPress Loop

Today I finally decided to dedicate a single tutorial on the wonderful WordPress loop. I will demonstrate how to create a basic loop and show several examples of the loop in action. The loop is what gets post and/or page data in WordPress template files, so if you ever have a need to make a custom page or post template, you'll need to understand how the loop works.

 

The Basic WordPress Loop

Most often you will see the loop look something like this:

<?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>

<!------------This is where you present your post data....-------------->

<?php endwhile; else : ?>
    <p><?php _e( 'Sorry, no posts matched your criteria.' ); ?></p>
<?php endif; ?>

The above example doesn't contain the middle part of the loop in order to demonstrate where the loop typically begins and ends. That way you can find the loop in your current theme and work with it by knowing where it starts and stops at least.  Next we'll discuss what to put in between where it says <!------------This is where you present your post data....-------------->.

Fetching Data Inside a WordPress Loop

Post Title:

First I'll show you how to display the Title as a link to the Post's permalink.

<h2><a href="<?php the_permalink(); ?>" rel="bookmark" title="Permanent Link to <?php the_title_attribute(); ?>"><?php the_title(); ?></a></h2>

Just place the above code example where it says you present your post data in the the loop example above.

Post Content:

You can display the Post's content in a div with the following code inside of your loop:

<div class="entry">
<?php the_content(); ?>
</div>

Again, use the above code in between the starting and ending loop code explained above and this will display the general content of the post as entered into the standard WYSIWYG editor in the WordPress admin.

Using More Than One Loop

If you need to use two more more loops in the same template file, then you will have to reset the WordPress loop with rewind posts function like this:

<?php rewind_posts(); ?>

Just use the above line before your second loop and any loops afterwards and they will reset and be ready to function again.

 

How to Include a CSS Style Sheet for a WordPress Page Within a Plugin

For years I used to simply include CSS styles in WordPress plugins that I made for myself by doing it the same ways that you would for a pure HTML website like:

The Wrong Way:

<style>
p{
font-family: arial;
}
</style>

Or I would do it like this with an external stylesheet:

<link rel='stylesheet' href='http://jafty.com/wp-content/plugins/plugin-name/css/frontend-style.css' type='text/css' media='all' />

But I found out later when I started making professional plugins for clients that there is a more correct way to do it when using WordPress.

The Right Way to Include CSS Styles in a WordPress Plugin:

The right way to include a style sheet in a custom WordPress frontend page generated by a plugin you are making is to create the style sheet in an external CSS file and include it like this:

In your plugin's main PHP file include:

<?php

//Add frontend styles for the calendar page:
$pluginURL = plugins_url("",__FILE__);
$CSSURL = "$pluginURL/CSS/frontend-style.css";//change to your filename and path
wp_register_style( 'frontend_CSS', $CSSURL);

?>

Then,  wherever you want your style to show up, include this:

wp_enqueue_style('frontend_CSS');

I include the wp_enqueue_style function call write after wp_head normally in my custom page's header.

I normally like to have a folder inside my main plugin folder named "CSS" or "style" where I put all my CSS style sheets for the plugin. You can see I used "CSS" in the above example. You would of course alter the URL according to the folder you placed the CSS file in. The plugins_url function used with the __FILE__ definition as the second parameter will give the full URL to the plugin when it is called within the main plugin file. I normally name the main plugin file after the plugin name or sometimes i name it index.php, but regardless, the code would be the same as long as it is within the main plugin file.

In the abov example my style sheet was named frontend-style.css, yours could be named anything you like.

Using CSS Media Queries in Responsive Web Design

That's right! The post of the day is going to be on how to use CSS media queries to make a responsive web page or application. The project I'm working on requires me to create a responsive events calendar application that looks good in all sized browser windows as well as mobile devices including iPhone and Android phones and tablets. This can be done very well with CSS media queries and a basic understanding of HTML and CSS. Making today's task a little more challenging is the fact that we will be using HTML table elements. If you have any experience with HTML tables, you probably know that they can be tricky to size according to specific requirements most times. We will overcome the table cell sizing limitations in this article however.

Common Screen Sizes

One of the most important things to take into consideration when developing a fully responsive web application for both computers and mobile devices is your users screen size. What are your users likely to be using? Some will be on a PC, some on a tablet, others on an iPhone and yet others will be on an Android or other device. The ugly truth is that there are a lot of possibilities. I have found from experience that it's best to take into consideration the most commonly used screen sizes. I program for the most common and try to make it work resonably well in the uncommon sized screens as well because roughly up to 3% of your users could be using an odd sized screen that you haven't programmed for. While 3% may not sound very significant, think of it like this: If your site has 1000 visitors a day like mine does, then that means up to 30 people a day are viewing your site on a less-common screen size. 30 is 3% of 1000. Here are some of the latest statistics I could find on common screen sizes used:

First I want to show you common screen sizes of Mobile Devices since they are probably the fasting growing segment of 2016:

2016 Total iOS* Android Windows Others
February 5.15 % 1.08 % 3.49 % 0.42 % 0.16 %
January 5.38 % 1.17 % 3.69 % 0.37 % 0.15 %

The above information was collected by the website w3schools.com. The data represents the users of their website according to information collected by thier servers. It shows that only slightly greater than 5% of thier website viewers view thier site on a mobile device, but your site could have more because I think the w3schools website is one that developers reference a lot and developers do their work on a computer more often than on a mobile device. That may account for some of the low figures for mobile users. Now lets look at the most commone screen sizes according to rapidtables.com:

Common screen resolutions of rapidtables.com visitors (2/2014):

Screen resolution Display
ratio
Usage Screen size / type
1366x768 16:9 19.1% 14'' Notebook / 15.6'' Laptop / 18.5'' monitor
1920x1080 16:9 9.4% 21.5'' monitor / 23'' monitor / 1080p TV
1280x800 8:5 8.5% 14'' Notebook
320x568 9:16 6.4% 4'' iPhone 5
1440x900 8:5 5.7% 19'' monitor
1280x1024 5:4 5.5% 19'' monitor
320x480 2:3 5.2% 3.5'' iPhone
1600x900 16:9 4.6% 20'' monitor
768x1024 3:4 4.5% 9.7'' iPad
1024x768 4:3 3.9% 15'' monitor
1680x1050 8:5 2.8% 22'' monitor
360x640 9:16 2.3%
1920x1200 8:5 1.7% 24'' monitor
720x1280 9:16 1.6% 4.8'' Galaxy S
480x800 3:5 1.1%
1360x768 16:9 0.9%
1280x720 16:9 0.9% 720p TV

If you study the numbers above, they suggest that rapidtables.com visitors are much more likely to be on a smaller screen size device or mobile device than are w3scools.com users. I guess from reading the above data that their website has roughly up to 12% of their users using smaller screened devices such as iPhones, Androids and other mobile devices.

CSS Media Queries

I choose to use one simple type of CSS media queries in this challenge. I like to call it the max-width technique for sizing web pages at various sizes. This is due to the fact that the technique uses ony the max-width media query as you will see with the demonstration code below.

From studying the more common screen sizes, I've come up with a simple plan to make my calendar application look good on just about any possible screen size. Here is my rudimentary logic:

I plan to set the maximum with of the calendar to 1000 pixels and centering it on the page. By doing this I eliminate the need for any media queries for screens over 1000 px wide! As you can see from the charts above,  there are 17 screen sizes represented and 11 of them are over 1000px wide! We have already made our work a lot easier since we only have 4 other screen widths to worry about(because 3 of them have 320px wide screens). Obviously 320px is of great concern as it is one of the most common widts on mobile phones, but I'll also take into considertion the widths of 360px, 480px, 720px and 768px. However, some will be taken care of by the same media queries as you'll soon discover. Here are the basic rules we will go by when making out calendar application:

  • web page will be no wider than 1000px and centered.
  • first media query will be set for max-width of 800px meaning that if the page size is under 800px wide the styles inside of the media query definition will be altered.
  • A second media query set for a max-width of 500px will apply changes for any screen size under 500px down to the next media query.
  • A third media query set for a max-width of 400px will account for any screen between400px and the next media query.
  • A forth and final media query set for max-width of  320px will account for the common screen sizes of 320px and under which are the smallest group of mobile phones, so no other media queries after this one will be required.

I have outlined my logic above, now I can add my media queries to my CSS style sheet as follows:

/*add styles for screen sizes of 800px and up. These don't need to be inside of a media query because the table's width for the calendar will be set to 1000px and centered. Tables are generally flexible enough to be reduced from 1000 to 800px without any problems given it is styled and tested correctly.*/

@media(max-width: 800px) {
//add styles for screen sizes from 500 to 800px:
}

@media(max-width: 500px) {
//add styles for screen sizes from 400 to 500px:
}

@media(max-width: 400px) {
//add styles for screen sizes from 320 to 400px:
}

@media(max-width: 320px) {
//add styles for screen sizes 320px and under:
}

The above is a good way to start your CSS style sheet for a resposive design. You may find that you may not need to use one or more of the media query definitions. You may also find yourself adding one or two media query definitions. None-the-less, this is a good start.

Writing and Testing your CSS Code

When I make a responsive web page, I first make the basic page with basic CSS and no media queries. Then when the basic page is complete, I start testing it at different screen sizes by making my browser window smaller and larger and seeing how the page looks at every possible width and height. Then I add styles to media queries and edit them until the page looks good at every possible size. Finally I test on actual devices such as an iPhone, Android phone and a tablet while making final adjustments according to how the page looks on the actual devices.

How to Make an Image Cover the Entire Webpage Background with CSS3

CSS3 includes many fabulous new tricks. One of those is the background-size attribute which I will demonstrate below. This is what I have found to be the best way to make a background image cover the entire webpage background regardless of the screen size or browser window size. Also, this is a nice new modern cross-browser method that works in most modern browsers including:

  • Safari 3 and above
  • Firefox version 3.6 and higher
  • Internet Explorer 9 and above
  • Chrome
  • Opera 10 and above

CSS3 Style to Make Image Cover Whole Page Background

Here is the css style to add to any webpage to add a background image that covers the entire page background:

<style>

html{
background: url(images/bg.jpg) no-repeat center center fixed;
-webkit-background-size: cover;
-moz-background-size: cover;
-o-background-size: cover;
background-size: cover;
}

</style>

Conclusion

This method works great for almost every site I've used it on, so give it a chance. I know CSS3 still scares some people, but using it is a pretty safe bet these days. It's been around long enough now to be considered the standard in my opinion. Some of you may have noticed that I have SEO as a category for this article. Why? That is because proper mobile development is beginning to effect search results in  Google as of April of 2015, so sites with correct mobile optimization will get ranked better! So optimize your website for mobile devices today or you may lose your Google rank!

You Can Now Contribute Web Development Content

Jafty Interactive Web Development has decided to start accepting user contributed blog posts! You can now submit any post that is related to out blog theme of web development and it will be published after admin moderation. As long as it is on topic and I think it improves the quality of my blog, it will probably be published. Some topics I would like to encourage users to submit posts about include:

  • PHP
  • JavaScript
  • HTML
  • XML
  • CSS
  • Search Engine Optimization/SEO
  • Freelancing as a web developer
  • Freelance writing
  • working from home
  • Laravel
  • WordPress
  • C Languages
  • Java
  • ASP.net
  • JQUERY
  • Ruby on rails
  • MySQL Database
  • SQL
  • PHP and MySQL
  • Remote server administration
  • Linux Command Line
  • Linux and Windows Servers
  • MAC and web development
  • PC vs MAC
  • Mobile Development
  • Mobile website optimization
  • PERL
  • AJAX
  • Adwords
  • CURL
  • Graphics
  • anything else related to web development!

That's just a list to fuel your mind. Feel free to submit any related topic. I will accept anything related to web development. I'm looking forward to some great blog posts! - Ian L.

Click Here to Sign Up and Begin Writing!

 

Making a Mobile App from a WordPress Site

To be competitive in the online market, we all know you need to have a regular website as well as a mobile  website or at least a regular website that is mobile-friendly. Well, these days, that's not enough any longer. You also need to have an app!

The App Era

Why do I need an app when I already have a mobile friendly website?

If you are wondering why you should also have an app, here are some of the more important reasons why you should have an app that features your website in addition to the site itself:

  • We now live in the "era of the apps" or the "app era" as I call it. There are millions of people that use apps everyday but rarely go to their browser to look something up, so by having an app, you expand your viewing audience greatly to a fresh market segment that you would otherwise have no exposure to.
  • Promotion of your website online and in an app store - By making an app out of your already existing mobile website, you can offer it for free in the Google Play Store, Apple/ITunes' App Store and various download locations online.
  • Convenient - since you already have the website made, it's easy to wrap it a native mobile app wrapper with a little know how or you can hire someone to do it for a lot less then the cost of creating a complete app from scratch.

How to Create an iPhone App

This is a starting point for anyone wanting to know how to start developing iPhone apps. There is really only one way to correctly develop apps for iPhones and that is the method we will explain here. Unfortunately, iPhone and Android Apps must be created somewhat differently, although there are some things you can do to minimalize development if you have to create an app for both. However, in this guide, we will only discuss the iPhone app since it is clearly a different beast from Android apps.

As you can imagine, iPhones, Macs and anything Apple are very proprietary in nature, so the number one requirement for developing applications for iPhones is that you must have access to a Mac computer!

Simple Website Wrapper for iPhone Apps using Xcode

In this tutorial, I'll describe how to make a simple website wrapper that will allow you to make an iPhone app out of a website or web based app.

Prerequisites

The main thing you need to have before doing this exersize is a mobile friendly web site or web-based application. See one of my many tutorials on this site regarding responsive web design techniques to get started.

Also basic knowledge of IOS, iPhone and xcode development is needed. If these concepts are new to you, check out:

http://codewithchris.com/how-to-make-iphone-apps-with-no-programming-experience/

You'll find a very intuitive assortment of beginner tutorials on developing with xcode 7 at the above link. The site, coding with Chris, basically is dedicated to teaching xcode to new users and learning experts.

At the time I wrote this tutorial, near the end of 2015, the current version of Xcode was Xcode 7. You can download the latest version of Xcode for Mac at

https://developer.apple.com/xcode/download/

...or go the app store and search for xcode and you'll find it easy enough.

...and unfortunately, you do have to have a Mac to use Xcode, so if you only have a windows machine, you'll have to get a Mac to successfully develop any sort of iPhone apps.

Embedding a Website into an iPhone App with Xcode

After doing extensive research, I have determined that the best method of converting your web-based app or website into an iPhone app that can be offered in the app store is to use Xcode's webView class to wrap the website in a wrapper that makes it act like a native iPhone app. Without wasting any time, here is how I did it:

  1. Open Xcode, start a new "Single View" project and name it whatever you want your app to be named.
  2. Choose your programming language during the project creation procedure in Xcode. You could use objective-C or Swift. For this tutorial, we are using Swift, so select "Swift" as the coding language during the project creation process in Xcode.
  3. In the left navigation panel of xcode you can see the files in your project, click on the "ViewController.swift" filename and it will open it in the editor pane to the right. Make the contents of the file look like this:

import UIKit

class ViewController: UIViewController, UIWebViewDelegate  {

@IBOutlet var webView: UIWebView!

override func viewDidLoad() {
super.viewDidLoad()
let url = NSURL(string: "http://jafty.com")
let request = NSURLRequest(URL: url!)
webView.loadRequest(request)
}

override func didReceiveMemoryWarning() {
super.didReceiveMemoryWarning()
// Dispose of any resources that can be recreated.
}
}

  1. Now this is the important part that most beginners miss! You have to connect the part of the code that reads "@IBOutlet var webView: UIWebView!", with the view it is in. This is important! Without doing this, it will not work. you have to open both the ViewController.swift file and the view's layout at the same time in two editors and click on the line no. in front of the line that reads "@IBoutlet...." and drag a line to the webview controller in the view's layout dialog window.

 

Hiring Experienced Graphic Artist for Online Web and Game Applications

Jafty Interactive Web Development is looking to hire a very talented Graphics person. You must be accustomed to doing high-end projects. I need someone that excels in the following areas of Graphic Design:

  • Photoshop
  • Blender
  • Three.js
  • Gimp
  • 3D Modeling
  • Web Page design
  • Experience with Unity a plus
  • Must have a portfolio of web sites you have designed(not developed, but designed in Photoshop or similar)
  • Portfolio in 3D modeling for games and/or websites is plus
  • 5 years min experience
  • Self-Taught okay if you can prove yourself
  • Be willing to do a challenge project
  • Be willing to work on a project by project basis

We will consider hiring one Photoshope designer and a separate 3D designer, so please let us know if you have experience in either and need some work. If you're looking for full-time work though, you'd need to be able to do both Web site design and 3D modeling to stay busy with us because I don't have enough work in one or the other to keep you busy, but I do in both combined. Coding sills not required, but are a plus.

CodeLobster All-in-One Coding Software

CodeLobster PHP Edition Software Review

Written by Ian Lincicome of Jafty Interactive Web Development - Jafty.com

For the past couple of weeks, I have been evaluating CodeLobster's latest release of "CodeLobster PHP Edition" which I'll refer to as simply "CodeLobster" from here on out in this review. The current edition at the time of writing this review was CodeLobster PHP Edition Professional Version 5.4. I am reviewing CodeLobster because I am looking for a tool I can use for my web development business, Jafty Interactive Web Development. Also I was given a break on purchasing the pro version of CodeLobster in exchange for writing a product review on my site, Jafty.com. Please note that I am under no obligation to write a positive review. I will be as brutally honest as ever, I assure you. This review will include both the pros and cons of using CodeLobster rather than a one-sided review like many company's probably hire writers to write. In fact, if that was my intention, I wouldn't have mentioned that the someone had asked me to write this review. My ulterior motive for writing the review is to find the perfect program to do my work for my business. I am also evaluating other products as well because I want to work with the best.

I'm looking for an application that will allow me to seamlessly edit several types of code on several different servers without having to use a separate code editor, FTP program, web browser and Language reference material. To this date, I have been using three separate applications to accomplish my day-to-day work. I used FileZilla to copy files from a client's web server to my desktop. I used Notepad++ to edit the code files. Finally, before using FileZilla again to upload the files back to the client's server, I viewed the file in Firefox to see how it looks in a browser. That is if it is not a server-side language like PHP which I use the most. If I had to edit a PHP file, I had yet another couple of steps to perform because I'd have to upload the file to the server to view it and then repeat the whole entire process again if I had more changes to make to get it perfect. So I used FileZilla, Notepad++ and Firefox mostly up until now. I figure I could probably almost double my productivity with one good tool that does it all.

Technologies CodeLobster Supports

CodeLobster supports a wide range of technologies including:

  • PHP
  • HTML
  • JavaScript
  • CSS
  • SQL
  • MySQL
  • Version control systems such as SVN, Git etc.
  • CakePHP
  • CodeIgniter
  • WordPress
  • Drupal
  • Joomla
  • Facebook
  • jQuery
  • Smarty
  • Symfony
  • Yii

CodeLobster also has a very wide assortment of features including all the standard components you would expect in a code editor and many extras. I found a helpful built-in Help feature that also links to online help if you can't find what you need in the built-in documentation. The online documentation is surprisingly complete for a newer product.

Installing CodeLobster

The installation went smoothly and was very easy and comprehensive. Simply download and click the set up file and the installer will guide you through the simple set up process. Here is the Download Link: http://www.codelobster.com/download.html

When I first installed CodeLobster, it allowed me to select what languages/technologies I wanted to install. I only deselected two that I knew for sure I would most likely never use. I figured if there was even a small chance that I might use one of the items listed, then I should leave it checked. That way I will be prepared in case I need that particular technology in the future.

Pros and Cons

Once I began using CodeLobster I noticed both good and bad points regarding the program. I loved how versatile the program was right out of the box. I did not like the way the word wrap feature worked(View/Word Wrap). It breaks up words rather than splitting lines by the nearest space. I'd prefer it to not break up words at all or at least do so in a more logical manner(by syllables with hyphens for example). From what I understand from reading the forums and talking with my contact, CodeLobster plans to add an option between soft and hard word-wrap. Hard wrap is how it is now and soft wrap would be a word-wrap technique that doesn't break up words. I do hope they add it soon because it was one of the of the first things I noticed.

One of the first features I noticed and liked was the completely configurable hot-keys. You can configure any hot-key by going to Tools/Preferences/IDE/Hot keys. Another nice feature is the Find and Replace feature that is very much like that of Notepad++ including regular expression search and the ability to search and replace text in files, folders and sub-folders. This can be a huge time-saver for coders.

One of the first things I noticed and did not like was the lack of a decent spell checker. I know notepad++ has the option as a plugin, but not as a built-in feature. Either way would be great, but I think it should be a standard built-in feature. I realize that auto-complete helps with this, but not if you are writing a plain text file such as I am doing right now while writing this review. I talked to my contact at CodeLobster Software about this and he assured me that they plan to add a robust spell-checking feature in the near future. He mentioned that they plan on making several additions to the software and will be releasing future editions with new features and improvements ASAP. So, while CodeLobster may not have everything I would like it to have at the moment, I was assured that they are heading in the right direction with future expansion plans.

Another nice feature I also noticed right away was CodeLobster's tool bars. The tool bars are completely configurable and have a nice drag and drop feature to move tool bar items around as you please. The same can be said for the man different windows that can be added or removed from the work area.

CodeLobster is a code editor first & foremost and it does a wonderful job at editing PHP code which is my code of choice. If you are looking for a word processor, CodeLobster probably won't fit the bill, but it is a very robust code editor that can handle all of the languages I use for web development and several others.

CodeLobster's plugin ability is great to have in a code editing program. The pro version of CodeLobster comes with many plugins that the free version does not include from what I understand, so I think the pro version is definitely worth the cost for those of you who work with frameworks such as WordPress, Joomla, CakePHP, CodeIgniter, etc. I currently own the Pro version and I am happy with its performance so far and will be much happier once some of the additions are made in the near future.

Even the free version would be great for coders who use many different coding languages regularly but don't need the extra plugin abilities that require the pro version. As a full-time web developer, I mostly use PHP, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, WordPress and MySQL. I also occasionally use Joomla, XML, Perl, Python, Drupal, Smarty, Laravel, CakePHP and others, so I require the Pro version of CodeLobster myself. If you only use the most common languages such as PHP, HTML, CSS and JavaScript, you can probably do fine with the free version. Some of the things I require the Pro version for include WordPress support, Smarty, Laravel and CakePHP. Honestly there are to many features to list here. You should visit their web page at http://www.codelobster.com/details_phped.html to figure out which version is best for you. They also have a Lite version which you can read about on their site since I won't be covering CodeLobster Lite here.

As I continue to evaluate the software I am finding there are more and more features that I like. As a web developer, I need a tool that allows me to quickly edit code, test it and upload it to the client's server. So far, CodeLobster seems to be meeting my three main requirements quite well in most cases.

FTP Feature

CodeLobster's FTP ability is a very powerful feature. The FTP feature allows you to set up as many FTP connections as you need. I was able to copy all of my client's FTP connections from FileZilla into CodeLobster. Now I am able to click on a connection, edit a server file, preview it and upload it back to the server seamlessly from within a single application! This is huge for me because I used to use at least three different applications to do the same thing without CodeLobster. I can see that my work will get done a lot faster by using CodeLobster. In fact, I am already getting work done faster after only two days of using it.

The FTP feature is very functional, but for a guy like me who hates to read instructions, it took a little bit of fooling around using trial and error methods to get it set up for the first time with all of my client's 20+ FTP connections and configuring basic settings. Everything I needed to accomplish my FTP tasks is in CodeLobster, but the FTP system does need some improvements. For example it gave me trouble when trying to connect to a SFTP connection. It worked great with all non-secure FTP connections however. As luck would have it, out of over 20 current clients I work with, only one uses SFTP rather than FTP, so I am unable to test it on other secure SFTP servers to see if the problem is just with this one server or not. Unfortunately this is one of my regular clients so it is going to be a problem for me. It did connect using SFTP, but had issues when trying to edit files on the server which I was able to do fine with regular FTP connections. I did bring this issue to the attention of my CodeLobster contact however and he assures me it will be looked into ASAP.

Regarding the GUI set-up for FTP, in my personal opinion, the way the windows are organized in the work area could have been done a little better. For example, when I use FTP, I have to go to Tools/FTP to open the explorer window that lists FTP connections. That alone will allow you to open your FTP connection but won't allow you to see what's going on. If there was an error and the only window you had open in your work area was the explorer window, you wouldn't see that error. This is where I think it could have been done better. I would have programmed it so that when you open the FTP window, the output window opens along with it, right above it, similar to how FileZilla allows you to view console output. Of course this is just my opinion, it may not bother others and actually I am starting to get used to it so it doesn't bother me as much as time passes.

Search Features

The "Find in Files"(Search/Find in Files...) feature is great for finding text in open files. It could be improved to allow file search on the local directory tree files as well, but it is sufficient the way it is. Also I love the regular expression search as I mentioned earlier.

Also, I often use the incremental search feature when I edit code. While I am glad it has this feature, a small nuisance for me is that the incremental search box is not persistent across different views. I think it would be nice if the incremental search box would stay at the bottom of all view tabs once it is opened. I don't think it should close unless you manually close it. Again, this is just my preference, not a bug.

Nice-to-Have Features

One more thing I liked while test driving CodeLobster is that when editing .html and .css files I could hover over class names in the HTML or CSS code and it would show me the associated style declaration. Also when hovering over items in a .css file, it shows me information regarding the browser compatibility of the CSS code.

The HTML preview feature works very well. It is a built-in browser that shows the results of your code live without having to open a separate browser window. All you do is click on the "preview" tab. I did notice that sometimes you have to hit the refresh button to see your changes, but that is to be expected.

I also enjoyed the code formatting features very much. I tested them on an HTML file that I copied from an online web page. At first the HTML code was ran all together with no line breaks or indents. I simply went to the tool bar and clicked "Tools/Code Format/Format" and it formatted it perfectly. I am sure it will work with other supported languages equally well.

When you double-click on a variable name in the PHP editor, it highlights the variable and the dollar sign, so you can copy the whole thing and paste or search for it easily. Notepad++ wouldn't include the dollar sign and it was a bother to me.

CodeLobster has what they call a "Map" feature(View/Windows/Map) that I've never seen before. It is basically a small window with a tiny view of the document you're working on. It allows you to click anywhere in the Map to quickly jump to a section of the file that you need to work on. It is a great feature for working with large files.

Conclusion

I have concluded that CodeLobster will indeed fill a need in my current web development process. It is not yet developed enough to be the only tool I use simply because of that one SFTP connection it will not work correctly with. However I found that I can combine it with another tool, CyberDuck, as a work-around until the developers of CodeLobster work out the final kinks in the software and add some more nice-to-have type features such as spell-check and . In the end it still gets a thumbs up for all the wonderful features it has and for its robustness in general. Eventually I believe it will make the perfect all-in-one coding tool for my company. The other contender for my new all-in-one coding tool was CyberDuck and I can honestly say that CodeLobster has much more potential. CyberDuck is also in its early stages of development and it needs several improvements to be truly useful. CyberDuck fails in comparison to CodeLobster when it comes to Features. CodeLobster is truly made to be an all-in-one coding solution while CyberDuck is missing many of the necessary features to be a real competitor.

If you are interested in how I combined CodeLobster with CyberDuck to make up for CodeLobster's short-coming when connecting by SFTP, I'll quickly go over how to do it. Create a bookmark(that's what CyberDuck calls their FTP/SFTP connections) in CyberDuck to the SFTP server. CyberDuck allows you to set it up so you can use your own code editor with it in a way that allows you to click on a file from a remote server and open it in that editor. Then when you save it in that editor(CodeLobster), it saves it to the server. That way I still have a seamless process even though I have to combine two tools to get what I truly want.

How to Make a Completely Responsive Website Quickly

In today's blog post, I'm going to show you one way you can make a completely responsive web site with six pages while only coding one HTML file and one CSS file! I will also demonstrate how to make a horizontal responsive navigation menu for your site. If you want a vertical responsive menu, you can adapt the code accordingly yourself. This tutorial also demonstrates an alternative to using image maps as I believe the method I use here for navigation menus with images works better than image maps. The advantage to using an image or several images for your navigation menu is that they respond better at different screen sizes than text does.

Here's a link to the final product. Note that I used a very plan image for the navigation text, but you can use any type of image you want for yours. I also used a single image where you could use one for each navigation link with a little modification of the code. I am trying to say that this demonstrates the code only and the look and feel you will need to make your own because mine is ugly as it is for demonstrating code only:

http://jafty.com/ResponsiveSite.html

Using Divs Instead of Image Maps

While this tutorial is technically about doing a responsive website with a image for a navigation menu, this exact same method can be used in place of image maps because, if you've tried to make a responsive page that has an image map in it, you know it doesn't work well.

Building a Responsive Navigation Menu

Starting at the top of our page, the first thing we will do is build our .html file with a top navigation menu. Okay, lets' start our HTML:

<html>
<head>
<title>test</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css">
</head>
<body>
<div id="page">
<div id="header-menu-overlay">
<img src="topnav0map.png" style="width:100%;"  border="0" alt="top navigation menu"/>
<div>
    <div>
        <div><a href=""></a></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
        <div></div>
    </div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</body>
</html>

To follow along with the tutorial, copy and paste the above code into a new notepad document and save it as test.html. The first div includes an img tag in it as you can see above. Here is the actual image to give you a better idea of what I have done here. So "topnav0map.png" refers to the following image:

topnav0map.png:
topnav0map

Again, if you're following along, right click on the above image and save it to the same directory as your test.html file. I put the image in a blue background here so you can see it because it is mostly white over a transparent layer done in Photoshop. The reason I use an image here is because it is responsive when you set the width to 100% and height to auto. This is about when I got the idea for an image map to link the items in the nav as you see them in the above image, but quickly found out that image maps do not resize well when changing either the page size or the zoom level when looking at the page live. therefore I used divs as they are more responsive when used properly with percentages as you'll see below when I get to the CSS part.

Responsive CSS Layout

The most important part is probably the responsive CSS code. Here is what I used:

#page{
position:relative;
width:100%;
max-width:900px;
background-color:#222288;
margin:0 auto;
min-height:1200px;
margin-top:25px;
}

.header_menu_overlay{
position: absolute;
top: 100px;
left:0px;
width: 100%;
min-height: 30px;
text-align: center;
z-index: 99999;
}
.navwrap{
top:-20px;
min-height:27px;
position: relative;
}

.nav_item_wrap{
position:relative;
width:100%;
max-width:1125px;
height:27px;
border: 1px solid brown;
margin:0 auto;
}

.nav_item{
position: relative;
border: 1px solid red;
height: 33px;
display: block;
float: left;
z-index: 999;
}

.nav_item a{
width: 100%;
height: 100%;
position: relative;
display: block;
}

.nav1{
width: 7%;
margin-left: 9%;
}

.nav2{
width: 10%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.nav3{
width: 10%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.nav4{
width: 20%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.nav5{
width: 19%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.nav6{
width: 10%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.pg{
position:relative;
width:100%;
max-width:900px;
min-width: 225px;
background-color:#8a1734;
margin:0 auto;
min-height:600px;
margin-top:125px;
}

First, I used the "page" div as a page wrapper by setting a standard 900px width which you may adjust to your needs. I also set width to 100% which is very important for responsive designs, but also notice the max-width is set to 900px this is so your page won't go crazy-wide when you open a large browser window on a PC. If you want to always cover the width of the screen regardless, then you could remove this, but I recommend using a maximum width myself for most scenarios. Next I'll include a short description for each CSS declaration after "page" which I just explained:

  • header_menu_overlay - is used to position the overall navigation menu where you want. You'll see I decided to put it a hundred pixels from the top of the page, but you can put yours wherever you need it even at the bottom of the page for a footer menu if that's what you need. the header-menu-overlay div is the one that holds the image as well as the rest of navigation divs. Be sure to set the width only of the image in this div and set that width to 100% so it is responsive.
  • navwrap - is the div that wraps the other divs we will use for our links. we set it's position to relative and top to a negative number to force it on top of the image above it.
  • nav_item_wrap - wraps around the individual menu items and has a margin of "0 auto" so it centers the group of menu items to the rest of the page nicely.
  • nav_item - this class is set to all of the navigation item divs and is used to set their height, display and to float them left which is important for responsiveness.
  • nav_item a - is a style definition for the anchor/link tags inside of the nav_item div. Without this the links will not work. It sets the width and height to 100% of the containing element. You have to set "position: relative", width and height for this to work.
  • nav1 - nav6 - the next six CSS declarations are used to set each individual menu item's width and margin-left properties since they can all be different.

Add CSS Classes & Content to HTML:

Okay now we just need to add the classes above in the proper spots in our original HTML code and add some content for each page so that your new HTML page looks like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>test</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css">
</head>
<body>
<div id="page">
<div id="header_menu_overlay">
<img src="topnav0map.png" style="width:100%;" border="0" alt="top navigation menu"/>
<div class="navwrap">
<div class="nav_item_wrap">
<div class="nav_item nav1"><a href="#pg1"></a></div>
<div class="nav_item nav2"><a href="#pg2"></a></div>
<div class="nav_item nav3"><a href="#pg3"></a></div>
<div class="nav_item nav4"><a href="#pg4"></a></div>
<div class="nav_item nav5"><a href="#pg5"></a></div>
<div class="nav_item nav6"><a href="#pg6"></a></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<div class="pg"><a name="pg1">page 1</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 1 content here...</h1>
</div>

<div class="pg"><a name="pg2">page 2</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 2 content here...</h1>
</div>

<div class="pg"><a name="pg3">page 3</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 3 content here...</h1>
</div>

<div class="pg"><a name="pg4">page 4</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 4 content here...</h1>
</div>

<div class="pg"><a name="pg5">page 5</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 5 content here...</h1>
</div>

<div class="pg"><a name="pg6">page 6</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 6 content here...</h1>
</div>
</div>
</body>
</html>

Now you should be done and you have a completely responsive website in no time at all! All you need to do is go back and add page code to each page's section. Simply replace the existing code inside of the H1 tags to make your page headers and add more content below each to build out your content. If you followed the tutorial to the tee, your page should look like my finished example page here:

http://jafty.com/ResponsiveSite.html

Summary

So if you followed this tutorial, you should have learned quite a bit about responsive design. Not only should you be able to grasp how to develop a navigation menu from this article, but you should now be able to understand how to replace an inline image map with responsive divs and even how to make an entire responsive website using the techniques demonstrated here. Remember to use percentages instead of pixels for widths and even heights wherever you can and your design will be responsive and evenly laid out for all devices. Congratulations, you are now a responsive developer if you understood all of this. Good Luck!