## How to Do Something Every Nth Iteration in a PHP Loop

If you’re a PHP coder, you are sure to come across a scenario from time to time where you have a PHP loop and you need to execute specific code every other time the loop iterates or every four times the loop iterates etc.

## Using the Modulus Operator

The key to making something happen every nth time in a loop is the modulus operator or %.

A common scenario where you would need to do something in a loop every fourth or fifth iteration only is when you are printing a series of HTML elements. Let’s pretend we have 12 items in an array and we want to print them in groups of four per line. While printing the array you will need to print the <br /> tag every four iterations if you want four items on each line.  The code inside your PHP loop would look like this:

if(\$i % 4 == 0){echo “<br />”;}

Now let’s put this to the test with some test code using the above scenario. Below I fill an array with 12 words and print them out in a loop four per line:

<?php
\$words = array(‘one’,’two’,’three’,’four’,’five’,’six’,’seven’,’eight’,’nine’,’ten’,’eleven’,’twelve’);
\$noof = count(\$words);
\$i=0;
for(\$ii=0;\$ii<\$noof;\$ii++){
\$i++;
echo \$words[\$ii];
echo ” “;
if(\$i % 4 == 0){echo “<br />”;}
}//end for loop
?>

Noticed I used \$ii in the for loop and set a second variable, \$i for using with the modulus line. This is because \$ii will start at zero and we need to start at 1 in this case. The results of the above code would be:

one two three four
five six seven eight
nine ten eleven twelve

Today however, I came across a more complex scenario where I was able to also use the modulus operator to save the day. This time I needed to print items from an array inside of HTML list elements. Lets modify the above scenario using lists instead of line breaks to display the array data:

<?php
\$words = array(‘one’,’two’,’three’,’four’,’five’,’six’,’seven’,’eight’,’nine’,’ten’,’eleven’,’twelve’);
\$noof = count(\$words);
\$i=0;
for(\$ii=0;\$ii<\$noof;\$ii++){
\$i++;
if(\$i % 4 == 1)echo “<ul>”;
echo “<li>”;
echo \$words[\$ii];
echo “</li>”;
if(\$i % 4 == 0)echo “</ul>”;
}//end for loop
?>

The output of the above PHP code would be:

1. one
2. two
3. three
4. four
1. five
2. six
3. seven
4. eight
1. nine
2. ten
3. eleven
4. twelve

The results were four separate ordered lists  as you can see. But how did we do this? Notice the difference in the modulus operator use for the opening <ol> tag and then for the closing </ol> tag.

The tricky part here is we can’t use if(\$i % 4 == 0) on the opening <ol> tag because if you think about it you don’t need <ol> printed on 4,8 and 12 which is what if(\$i % 4 == 0) would produce. In this case, we need to print an opening <ol> tag on iterations 1,5,9 and 13, so we try something else. Here is how I figured this problem out:

First a simple demo of the modulus operator as we first used it:

<?php
\$i=0;
for(\$ii=0;\$ii<20;\$ii++){
\$i++;
if(\$i % 4 == 0)echo “\$i<br />”;
}//end for loop
?>

The above code results in:

4
8
12
16
20

Which is fine for printing the end </ol> tags, but will not work for printing the opening <ol> tags as I explained earlier, so I tried this instead:

<?php
\$i=0;
for(\$ii=0;\$ii<20;\$ii++){
\$i++;
if(\$i % 4 == 1)echo “\$i<br />”;
}//end for loop
?>

This time the above code printed out:

1
5
9
13
17

So, if we used a one instead of a zero like if(\$i % 4 == 1), then it would execute the code in the if statement on iterations 1,5,9 and 13 just as we need! Just for fun, let’s see what happens if we use a two instead of zero this time like if(\$i % 4 == 2). For example:

<?php
\$i=0;
for(\$ii=0;\$ii<20;\$ii++){
\$i++;
if(\$i % 4 == 2)echo “\$i<br />”;
}//end for loop
?>

This time the results would be:

2
6
10
14
18

so using a 2 to compare 4 modulus with results in the code executing on iterations 2,6,10….etc, but notice in each example where we use 4 as the first number, all the numbers are increments of 4 and when we use zero as the last number we get 4,8,12…. When we use 1 we get 1,5,9…. Finally if we use 2 we get 2,6,10…. From what we have learned I think it’s safe to assume that we we used 3, the results would be 3,7,11,15….and so on.

## Summary

I hope this article sheds some light on how to use the Modulus operator with PHP. Feel free to experiment by using other numbers in place of where I used 4 each time too! For example, if you want to do something every 5 times instead, you would use something like if(\$i % 5 == 0). Have fun with it!

This is a semi-advanced WordPress tutorial so you should have a little bit of existing knowledge of WordPress if you want to be able to understand the concepts involved. I will try to make it as easy to follow as possible none-the-less.

We are just going to dive right in a create a new Plugin. I’ll be calling the plugin Jafty-Nav, you can follow suit if you wish to keep things simple or give it your own name if you feel comfortable making such changes.

## Create a New Plugin

<?php
/**
* Plugin Name: Jafty Top Nav Plugin
* Plugin URI: http://jafty.com/blog/?p=9813
* Version: 1.0
* Author: Ian L. of Jafty.com
* Author URI: http://jafty.com
*/

Register a New Menu Location with WordPress

<?php
}
?>

Now that is actually enough to create a simple plugin. The plugin will add a menu location to wp-admin and that’s it, but we’ll build on it after we install it. So go ahead and install the plugin by putting it into a folder named “jafty-top-nav-plugin” and naming the file “index.php”. Then upload to your WordPress plugins directory. Activate the Jafty Top Nav Plugin then go to your admin and click on “Appearance/Menus” then select the “Manage Locations” tab and you’ll see the new menu location your plugin as added to the admin like in the image below.

Placing a new top nav in your theme

</nav>
3. Inside the code within the Nav tag in your header-jafty.php file, change the theme_location value to ‘jafty-top-nav’ and save the file.
5. Next you’ll want to add the new header to your template files, Some templates you might want to do this too are front-page.php, single.php, page.php and any custom page templates in your theme or child theme you might have. The process is very similar for adding the new header to any of the files, so I’ll just demonstrate on the home page template file, front-page.php. Open the template file in your notepad and near the top of the code you should see something like this:
or you may have something like this instead:
Regardless which you have, replace the line with:
6. Save and upload your altered template file and repeat for all necessary page and post templates until you have your new top nav menu at the top of all desired pages and/or posts throughout your entire WordPress site.

Now that we have more control of it, let’s customize that ugly top nav!

It’s time to get down and dirty with some real-world customization of the top navigation menu in WordPress. We are not just doing some simple CSS changes here, we are talking about a complete rewrite of the navigation system. This is why I went with a plugin for this. Now I had to find what WordPress core functions I could use to alter the menu completely. My goal is to make a menu similar to the one at Stripe.com, which is not a WordPress site by the way. I just love the dynamic drop downs that fade in and out and their use of icons in the sub-menu items. I’ll get to how I duplicated all of that later on, first we need to know how to rebuild the entire menu structure because the stripe.com style menu is nothing like a standard WordPress menu. Here’s what I figured out:

First we need to be able to retrieve our custom navigation links from the WordPress backend. Remember earlier we created a menu location? Well, we need to retrieve the menu assigned to that particular location in WordPress. Therefore the first thing we want to do is make sure there is a menu assigned to the “Primary Jafty Menu”. You could pick one from the drop down, but we want to make a new one that is sure to have both main menu items and sub menu items so we can adequately test our menu when it’s complete. Therefore we locate the “Primary Jafty Menu” and click the link to the right of it that reads “Use New Menu” as I’ve circled in red in the below image:

When creating the new Primary Jafty Menu, give it a name of “Jafty 1”. It’s best to do everything exactly as I have done just to be sure you don’t have any conflicts. You can always change names and such after you have a completed working plugin. When creating the menu, make sure to add at least 2 main menu items with at least 2 sub menu items each so we can test the drop down effects. Here is an image of the one I made for testing. If you don’t have enough pages or posts to make that many links, don’t worry, just use two real links for the main menu items and click on “custom links” and create outside links for all of your sub menu items as I have done in the below image:

In the above image, “site settings” and “Hello world!” represent our two main menu items and the sub links rest below them indented to show their sub-link status. Notice I have “Primary Jafty Menu” checked under “Menu Setings” too. Once you have your menu, be sure you save it. Now we can return to developing our plugin!

It is time to develop some custom WordPress code to extract out menu items and sub-menu items from the database. Lucky for us, WordPress has some built-in core functions to assist us. Here is the code I come up with to extract all menu and sub-menu items for the “Jafty Primary Menu” from the database to display them on the front-end:

<?php

foreach (\$theNav as \$navItem) {
//get the url for the link:
\$navURL = \$navItem->url;
\$navTXT = \$navItem->title;
\$navID = \$navItem->ID;
//Get menu item parent(will be 0 if main link or parent ID if it’s a sub link):
echo “ID: \$navID, \$navTXT, \$navParent, \$navURL<br />”;
//echo ‘<li class=”has-dropdown gallery” data-content=”about”><a href=”‘.\$navURL.'” title=”‘.\$navItem->title.'”>’.\$navTXT.'</a></li>’;
}
?>

The above code will go in out header file named header-jafty.php. Lets examine the code so you understand what it does.

The first line:

as the comment says afterwards, it gets the navigation menu locations stored in WordPress. We added one of these in the beginning of the tutorial using the register_nav_menu function.

This line fetches the ID of the menu currently assigned to the menu location we created in the plugin file, “Primary Jafty Menu”. We then use the id in the next line that reads:

We now have a WordPress menu object stored in \$theNav. If you do a print_r(\$theNav) command in PHP, you would see that the menu object holds all sorts of information about the menu we created earlier. However, we only need four key pieces of information from the menu object. We need to get:

4. The Link’s Parent ID in case it is a sub-menu item.

We can get the four pieces of information we need using a foreach loop on the \$theNav object like so:

foreach (\$theNav as \$navItem) {
//get the url for the link:
\$navURL = \$navItem->url;
\$navTXT = \$navItem->title;
\$navID = \$navItem->ID;
//Get menu item parent(will be 0 if main link or parent ID if it’s a sub link):
echo “ID: \$navID, \$navTXT, \$navParent, \$navURL<br />”;
//echo ‘<li class=”has-dropdown gallery” data-content=”about”><a href=”‘.\$navURL.'” title=”‘.\$navItem->title.'”>’.\$navTXT.'</a></li>’;
}

We now have all the information we need about the menu items after running the above foreach loop on the menu object. We have the link text, URL, ID and Parent ID. It’s important to note that the parent ID will always be 0 if the link is a main menu item and we can determine if the link is a sub-menu item if the parent ID is anything other than zero. Then we know which link to put the sub-link under by matching the sub-link’s parent ID to the ID of the main link item. Pretty simply really, once you get accustomed to it.

Now we need to open our header-jafty.php file and find the line that reads something similar to:

And replace it with the code we wrote above:

<?php

foreach (\$theNav as \$navItem) {
//get the url for the link:
\$navURL = \$navItem->url;
\$navTXT = \$navItem->title;
\$navID = \$navItem->ID;
//Get menu item parent(will be 0 if main link or parent ID if it’s a sub link):
echo “ID: \$navID, \$navTXT, \$navParent, \$navURL<br />”;
//echo ‘<li class=”has-dropdown gallery” data-content=”about”><a href=”‘.\$navURL.'” title=”‘.\$navItem->title.'”>’.\$navTXT.'</a></li>’;
}
?>

ID: 47, Site Settings, 0, http://dev.outergain.com/site-settings/
ID: 49, Jafty Interactive, 47, http://jafty.com
ID: 50, Jafty Blog, 47, http://jafty.com/blog
ID: 48, Hello world!, 0, http://dev.outergain.com/2016/12/30/hello-world/
ID: 51, Yahoo Search, 48, http://yahoo.com

As you can see my site returned 6 lines of text in the header, one for each of the two main menu items and one for each of the four sub-menu items in the menu I created in wp-admin. Each of the lines above contains the main ID first, followed by the link text, then the parent ID and finally the link text. I highlighted the parent IDs in blue so you can see how the two main menu items have a parent ID of zero while the other four have parent IDs equal to the two main menu items with zero for parent ID. Make sense? I hope so:-)

For all you professional WordPress plugin developers, I can probably stop there. Now you have enough to make your own custom top navigation menu for your WordPress theme. You clearly don’t need to do this as a plugin, in fact, it would normally done by adding the plugin code to functions.php in the current theme instead. I am making it a plugin just as a learning exercise.

You can use the information it printed in your header to figure out how to add in the HTML and CSS for any type of custom nav you desire, or you can read on to see how I recreated the stripe.com-like top nav for one of my clients.

Before we go about coding the menu into WordPress, I like to create a static version first. I created mine based on looking at the top nav found on Stripe.com. You can click the link to see what I mean. I didn’t copy it by any means, but I did use it as a model for creating a similar one with similar transition effects. In the static demo, I didn’t create great detail in the drop downs. Instead I concentrated on getting the transition effects and infrastructure perfect. I can worry about making the content of the dropdown boxes look pretty when I code it into the actual WordPress site. Here is my static demo: http://jafty.com/nav_demo

I won’t post all of the code to my static navigation menu demo here but you may feel free to use the link provided and use your browser’s view source option to see how I made it and copy it if you so desire.

## The WordPress Loop

Today I finally decided to dedicate a single tutorial on the wonderful WordPress loop. I will demonstrate how to create a basic loop and show several examples of the loop in action. The loop is what gets post and/or page data in WordPress template files, so if you ever have a need to make a custom page or post template, you’ll need to understand how the loop works.

## The Basic WordPress Loop

Most often you will see the loop look something like this:

<?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>

<!————This is where you present your post data….————–>

<?php endwhile; else : ?>
<p><?php _e( ‘Sorry, no posts matched your criteria.’ ); ?></p>
<?php endif; ?>

The above example doesn’t contain the middle part of the loop in order to demonstrate where the loop typically begins and ends. That way you can find the loop in your current theme and work with it by knowing where it starts and stops at least.  Next we’ll discuss what to put in between where it says <!————This is where you present your post data….————–>.

## Fetching Data Inside a WordPress Loop

### Post Title:

First I’ll show you how to display the Title as a link to the Post’s permalink.

<h2><a href=”<?php the_permalink(); ?>” rel=”bookmark” title=”Permanent Link to <?php the_title_attribute(); ?>”><?php the_title(); ?></a></h2>

Just place the above code example where it says you present your post data in the the loop example above.

### Post Content:

You can display the Post’s content in a div with the following code inside of your loop:

<div class=”entry”>
<?php the_content(); ?>
</div>

Again, use the above code in between the starting and ending loop code explained above and this will display the general content of the post as entered into the standard WYSIWYG editor in the WordPress admin.

## Using More Than One Loop

If you need to use two more more loops in the same template file, then you will have to reset the WordPress loop with rewind posts function like this:

<?php rewind_posts(); ?>

Just use the above line before your second loop and any loops afterwards and they will reset and be ready to function again.

## Cron Job Not Working

Cron jobs seem to be one of the things I have to do often that give me trouble. That’s why I’m putting together this guide full of troubleshooting tips for people having problems with cron jobs.

Just today, for example, I wasted several hours figuring out why my cron job didn’t seem to be working and here is what happened:

I set up my cron job exactly as I always do according to my own tutorial I posted here:

Linux Cron Job Tutorial

however, it didn’t seem to be working so I tried chaing the shebang, changing the php location, etc. with no luck at all.

## The Solution

Finally after hours of wasting time, I figured out that the output of my cron job was not going where I thought it would go. For example, my test script created a file and wrote a line to that file to show the cron job ran. My cron test PHP file looked like this:

crontest.php:

<?php

#!/usr/bin/php
<?php
\$myFile = “cronresults.txt”;
\$fh2 = fopen(\$myFile, ‘a’) or die(“can’t open file to append”);
\$stringData = “appended text from cron job…\n”;
fwrite(\$fh2, \$stringData);
fclose(\$fh2);
?>

Simple, right? well the trick is the \$myFile variable works as expected in that it creates the file in the same directory as crontest.php when crontest is called from a web browser. So when I opened up Firefox and went to mysite.com/crontest.php, it worked fine, it would create a file named cronresults.txt in my public_html folder and write a simple line of text to it. However. HERE IS THE TRICKY PART! I call the script in crontest.php from a cron tab by adding the following line in crontab -e:

* * * * * /usr/bin/php   /var/www/mysite.com/public_html/crontest.php

but when I call it that way and look for the cronresults.txt file or look for the line of text it added to the file if it already exists, there is nothing so it appears as if the cron job didn’t work! Oh damn! I say. Then I try everything I can think of to fix it. The problem is that is was never broken! When you call a PHP script from a cron job and you do not specify the file path of the results file, it assumes the current users home folder! Therefore, it was working the whole time, but was creating and writing to a file in my /home/root directory because that’s the directory I called crontab -e from! THerefore my solution was as simply as replacing the \$myFile line with this:

\$myFile = “/var/www/mysite.com/public_html/cronresults.txt”;

WHEN YOU USE THE ENTIRE PATH IT WORKS AS EXPECTED! I can’t over emphasize the importance of this because I wasited several hours due to not knowing this.

Cron Job Troubleshooting Tips

• Always use a simple test script to test cron jobs for the first time on a new server. You can use my example crontest.php script above, but be careful to set the \$myFile variable with the entire path to the output file or you’ll have the same problem I wrote about above in this post.
• Always use a very simple command line in crontab when first testing your cron job. You can customize it after you get it working. I use something like:                               * * * * *  /usr/bin/php  /path/to/cron/crontest.php      then crontest.php will be executed every minute so you can quickly see if it is working. This makes testing and debugging much easier.
• Can’t figure out your Shebang or don’t know where PHP is on your server? Then simply go to a command prompt on your server using putty remotely or any command prompt if you are on your own server and type the following command: “which php” without the quotes. That will give you the path to php for both your shebang and your crontab file, like where it says /usr/bin/php in my examples above.

## Working with WordPress Advanced Custom Fields Image Repeater Fields

My latest WordPress project deals with remote updating of custom post types that use the Advanced Custom Fields Plugin. From here on out, I’ll simply refer to this plugin as ACF since it is such a long name and ACF is the generally accepted name among WordPress developers…

I am writing this post mostly because when working with ACF and repeater fields that have a sub field type of image, I wasn’t able to find sufficient documentation on the subject to complete my project. I did complete the project with a lot of trial and error and piecing together of bits of info from many sources. My goal is to document the subject as much as possible here in order to make life easier for anyone attempting to do similar tasks as I have done.

## The Challenge:

My particular challenge was that I had to create a WordPress plugin that would sync posts that used a custom post type and ACF. The basic requirement was that the plugin would update several client sites with posts from a single master site. So, the master site had a custom post type named “farms” that had several ACF fields including a couple repeater fields, one of which used the “image” sub-field type which is the focus of this article. The main challenge for me was basically writing code to insert images into a post that used a repeater field that had two sub-fields(image and alt_tag) the image sub-field stored image data in an array and the alt_tag sub-field stored custom alt tag content for the image tag. Some of you might already be thinking: Why do you have an alt_tag sub-field when alt tag content is already stored in the image data array. Well, that is true. However, it was a requirement of the project, so that’s what I did.

## The solution:

### How to add WordPress Advanced Custom Fields(ACF) Image Repeater Fields with PHP Code

Today’s challenge is to add values to an ACF image repeater field from within a plugin or theme file using PHP code. I had a difficult time figuring this out myself due to not being able to find enough documentation on the subject, so I decided to document my findings here. I used a custom post type named “farms” with my example. You can use a regular post, page or any custom post type for your own project. Just note that wherever you see “farms” it is my custom post type and should be replaced with your own value.

## Export one or more of the posts in question

A logical first step to solving this problem for me was to create an XML export file of one of the posts that I wanted to add repeater field values to. in order to accomplish this, first create a test post of the custom post type you will be working with and make sure that the repeater field is all set up using the ACF plugin. Be sure to add a minimum of two images under the repeater field so you can examine the data via the XML export file. See the image below for an example of my own test custom post type which was set up with proper data to export:

Now it’s time to export the post you just edited. To do this from wp-admin, click on “tools/export” and select the name of your custom post type. In my case, I select “farms” and click to export the posts as in the following image:

Open your XML file you downloaded and search for the post by title. Once you find the title, you could extract just that one post’s data by copying everything in between <item> and </item> and pasting it in a new  XML file. That makes it easier to read just the one post you are concerned with if you have a lot of posts and a long XML file to work with. Of course, this is an optional step. I have extracted my relevant post and also deleted some of the XML that wasn’t relevant to the task and here are the results:

<item>

<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[your_own_farm_pics]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[2]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[_your_own_farm_pics]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[field_57ab934d407ed]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[your_own_farm_pics_0_image]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[1862]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[_your_own_farm_pics_0_image]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[field_57ab934d407ee]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[your_own_farm_pics_0_alt_tag]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[first alt tag]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[_your_own_farm_pics_0_alt_tag]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[field_57ab934d407ef]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[your_own_farm_pics_1_image]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[1861]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[_your_own_farm_pics_1_image]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[field_57ab934d407ee]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[your_own_farm_pics_1_alt_tag]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[second alt tag]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[_your_own_farm_pics_1_alt_tag]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[field_57ab934d407ef]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
</item>

Once you’ve located your post’s XML, you will want to find the portion that is relevant to your particular ACF repeater field. To do this, simply do a search for the repeater field slug name. My field was named “your own farm pics”, so the slug name I would search for would be “your_own_farm_pics”. The first instance you find of the repeater field name/slug will look something like this:

<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[your_own_farm_pics]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[2]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>

Due to the use of CDATA , the above may look a little more complex than it really is. For what we are doing, we can simply ignore all of the CDATA stuff so that the above would become more like this:

<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key>your_own_farm_pics</wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value>2</wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>

Basically what’s in between the XML tags is this:
<![CDATA[your_own_farm_pics]]>
The part you want is in between the opening and closing brackets after the word, CDATA. The rest can be ignored. In this case, all we want is: your_own_farm_pics.

Then, to show one more example of extractig data from CDATA, the next line looks like:
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[2]]></wp:meta_value>
and the only part we want is the part after “CDATA[“, which is simply: 2

So examining the first poroption of relevent .xml code we can gather that the value of “your_own_farm_pics” is “2”.

Lets look at the next portion of XML that reads:
<wp:postmeta>
<wp:meta_key><![CDATA[_your_own_farm_pics]]></wp:meta_key>
<wp:meta_value><![CDATA[field_57ab934d407ed]]></wp:meta_value>
</wp:postmeta>
…okay, from what we’ve learned, this is what you should extract from the above XML:
field name(or key): _your_own_farm_pics
value: field_57ab934d407ed
I hope this part is clear to you. If it is not, then you’ll probably need to study an XML tutorial first to understand. But one thing you need to notice here is that the field name or key starts with an underscore, therefore it is different from the first meta key(_your_own_farm_pics instead of your_own_farm_pics).

Let’s go ahead and extract all of the relevant data from the .xml file. Basically you should be able to extract something similar to the following key/value pairs from the relevant portion of XML code:

your_own_farm_pics
2

_your_own_farm_pics
field_57ab934d407ed

your_own_farm_pics_0_image
1862

_your_own_farm_pics_0_image
field_57ab934d407ee

your_own_farm_pics_0_alt_tag
first alt tag

_your_own_farm_pics_0_alt_tag
field_57ab934d407ef

your_own_farm_pics_1_image
1861

_your_own_farm_pics_1_image
field_57ab934d407ee

your_own_farm_pics_1_alt_tag
second alt tag

_your_own_farm_pics_1_alt_tag
field_57ab934d407ef

As you can see there are 4 pieces of data for each image in the repeater field. This is because there are two sub-fields in this repeater field and each sub-field uses two key/value pairs. Notice the incremented numbers starting at 0. There is only a 0 and a 1 in this example because there are two images stored in our repeater field. so all the key names containing _0_ are one image’s data and then all the ones with key names containing _1_ are the second image’s data.

There are three parts to each key name. Each key either starts with the repeater slug or the repeater slug preceded by an underscore. Then there is a incremented number starting at zero. Finally we have the sub-field name. Here’s the pattern these sub-field key names follow:

repeater_field_name + incremented number + sub-field name

Above is the pattern for the data key. Below is the very similar patter for the field key:

underscore + repeater_field_name + incremented number + sub-field name

So knowing that, you should be able to know exactly how to read these XML files now. This also gives you a huge clue on how data is stored in the database as the key/value pairs in the XML file are exactly what is stored in the database. Therefore the values are exactly what needs to be written to the database in order to insert repeater images into a post or custom post type.

Let’s examine some PHP code now. Knowing what we do about the XML file, we know what data needs inserted into the database now, so our PHP code for the example XML file above should look like this in order to insert two images into a repeater field for a single post:

Note that the below code is for adding two sets of repeater field values. The repeater field is set up with two sub fields, one image sub-field and one simple text sub-field named alt_tag.

<?php

\$post_id = “1902”;
//first two key/value pairs are for the repeater field name:
\$key = “your_own_farm_pics”;
\$value = “2”;

\$key = “_your_own_farm_pics”;
\$value = “field_57ab934d407ee”;

//next eight key/value pairs are for the two repeater field sub-field names:
//There are four key/value pairs for the first image and four more for the second:
//Start image one data:
\$key = “your_own_farm_pics_0_image”;
\$value = “1867”;

\$key = “_your_own_farm_pics_0_image”;
\$value = “field_57ab934d407ee”;

\$key = “your_own_farm_pics_0_alt_tag”;
\$value = “Alt tag content for image 1”;

\$key = “_your_own_farm_pics_0_alt_tag”;
\$value = “field_57ab934d407ef”;

//Start image two data:
\$key = “your_own_farm_pics_1_image”;
\$value = “1869”;

\$key = “_your_own_farm_pics_1_image”;
\$value = “field_57ab934d407ee”;

\$key = “your_own_farm_pics_1_alt_tag”;
\$value = “Alt tag content for image 2”;

\$key = “_your_own_farm_pics_1_alt_tag”;
\$value = “field_57ab934d407ef”;

?>

Of course the above PHP code would go in a custom plugin and wouldn’t work as standalone php code, but you should get that if you have any experience with writing WordPress plugins and if you do not, then this topic is far to advanced for you anyway. Try one of my starter tutorials for WordPress plugin developers instead.

## Code explained:

First, you should notice the \$postid variable that gets set to the post id you want to update with repeater fields.

Then you see three lines of code setting the \$key variable to “your_own_farm_pics” which you will change to the name of your own repeater field name. The value of this needs to be equal to the number of repeaters you want to add. In this case, we are adding 2 images, so we set the value to 2.

Next you see the key of _your_own_farm_pics. This is the field value that is set in the database and is crucial in identifying the repeater field correctly, so be sure to get this right. Do an export of the database and search for the repeater field name to find the value for this if you have to. All you have to do it export the database as  XML and do a text search for the field name and you’ll see the value right below it. The code above uses the XML example code posted above in this post.

The next important section of code, where the comment says “//next eight key/value pairs are for the two repeater field sub-field names:“, is where you will have eight  sections with 3 lines of code each for the two image repeaters you add.  The important part to notice here is the numbering system used. Notice that the the first four sections of code have a zero in the keys, for example:

\$key = “your_own_farm_pics_0_image”;

So the value of the \$key variable in the above example is made up of three parts:

1. repeater field name: your_own_farm_pics
2. incremented number: 0
3. sub-field name: image

In this example, my repeater field name is “your_own_farm_pics”,  the numbers start at 0 and go as high as the total number of repeater fields you add, the sub-field name in this case is “image”.

Then, skip down three more lines to where you see the code:

\$key = “your_own_farm_pics_0_alt_tag”;

this is the second sub-field for the first repeater. so we follow the same principle as we did with the first sub-field which was image. The second sub-field name in this case is alt_tag, so we have:

1. repeater field name: your_own_farm_pics
2. number: 0
3. sub-field name: alt_tag

That covers the first repeater field with it’s two sub-fields. Then we want to add another repeater field with the code starting at the comment that reads: “//Start image two data:“.

Notice that the number in the two \$key variables has incremented to 1 in the second image’s code because the numbering starts at 0 and this is the second repeater or image added.

## Summary

I hope this article sheds some light on this dimly illuminated topic dealing with Advanced Custom Fields plugin and programming your own plugin to work with it. I had a very difficult time digging up enough information to piece the above code together myself, so I truly hope this helps someone attempting to do the same thing.

## Passing PHP Variables to File included with get_template_part WordPress Function

Today I had a problem where I had a WordPress page template that used get_template_part to include a section of the page like WordPress themes often do. My problem was that I did some custom coding to the theme and found it necessary to pass a variable to the file included using get_template_part.

## The Problem

Let’s say you have a custom page template for showing search results called special-search.php. Now let’s also say that the actual search results are displayed using another template file named content-searching.php. inside of special-search.php we would normally include the content-searching.php file something like this:

get_template_part( ‘template-parts/content’, ‘searching’ );

What’s wrong with that? Well, nothing unless you need to use PHP variables from special-search.php inside of content-searchnig.php. Then we have a problem. Read on for the simple solution!

## Making it Possible to Pass PHP Variables to Template Parts:

The solution is actually to simply not use the get_template_part function! We can very effectively replace get_template part with a combination of the common PHP include function and the WordPress locate_template function like this:

As you can see the locate_template function is called inside of the include function and locate_template takes three parameters. While, you really only need to use the first parameter in many cases, it is good to know what the other two do as well, so here are all three parameters defined:

1. ‘template-parts/template-name’ – will be changed to the path and filename to your template file you used to include with get_template_part. In our example case above, this parameter would get set to ‘template-parts/content-searching.php’.
2. \$load – is an optional Boolean parameter that would be set to either true or false, but which is set to false by default which is the desired setting in this case. This parameter tells the function whether or not to load the template file. We don’t want the template to be loaded by locate_template since it will get loaded by the include function in this case. So if we include this parameter, we would set it to false.
3. \$require_once – is the third parameter which is also optional and set to true by default. It simply determines whether we use require_once or require to include the template file. true = requrie_once and false = require.

## Example Usage:

Still using our test case scenario from above, here is how we would use the include and locate_template function together to replace get_template_part and hence be able to use variables defined in the parent file inside of the template part file. Above we said we had a template file named special-search.php that used get_template_part to include a template part file named content-searching.php. Below I will demonstrate the change that would need to be made:

Change this line:

get_template_part( ‘template-parts/content’, ‘searching’ );

into this line:

include(locate_template(‘template-parts/content-searching.php’));

Notice how get_template_part doesn’t use the actual whole filename due to it’s unique naming convention rules, but our second method however must use the whole filename. Both cases call the same file however. If you change get_template_part into the include statement shown in our example, then you will now be able to use variables defined in special-search.php within content-searching.php. Problem solved!

## How to add Custom Admin Meta Boxes to a WordPress Custom Post Type

I decided to write this detailed tutorial on how to add custom field meta boxes to the WordPress admin mostly because I couldn’t find a decent description of how to do it anywhere online. Hopefully this will help others having trouble trying to learn how to add admin meta boxes with custom fields for a custom post type in WordPress. It is an essential step to learning WordPress plugin development.

Let’s dive in and learn some code because I believe that is the quickest and easiest way to learn this advanced WordPress method. I say it is an advanced subject because it is a little complex for beginners. If you are not sure how to start your own plugin yet in WordPress, then this topic may be too advanced for you. You should at least learn how to make a very basic WordPress plugin first, so feel free to read one of my more basic WordPress plugin tutorials first.

First of all, I’ll show you how to add a single meta box with a single field in it. It is also important to know that you can have more than one field inside a single meta box. It is equally important to know that you can have more than one meta box. Each meta box can have one or more fields in them. It just depends on your individual needs. Below is the basic code for how to add a custom post type with a custom field inside of an admin meta box. I’ll also include a basic plugin heading so you may follow along and create a working example to work from:

## Adding a Custom Post Type to WordPress Plugin

<?php
/**
* Plugin Name: Jafty Metabox Example Plugin
* Plugin URI: http://jafty.com/blog/crash-course-on-wordpress-plugin-development/
* Description: A Plugin that adds metaboxes to your WordPress blog or site.
* Version: 1.0
* Author: Ian L. of Jafty.com
* Author URI: http://jafty.com
*/

//Add new Custom Post Type named videos:
function create_video_posttype(){
register_post_type(‘videos’,
array(
‘labels’ => array(
‘name’ => __(‘Videos’),
‘singular_name’ => __(‘Video’)
),
‘public’ => true,
‘has_archive’ => true,
‘rewrite’ => array(‘slug’ => ‘video’),
)
);
}//end create_video_posttype function

?>

Okay, now start a .php file and add the above code in green to the start of it. Name the file “jafty-metabox-example-plugin.php” and save it. Please NOTE: it is important to go into wp-admin/settings/permalinks and re-save those settings after activating a plugin with a custom post type or after adding a custom post type to a plugin. If you do not do this, the custom post type posts will not show up on the front end of your blog.

At this point, you should be able to upload the jafty-metabox-example-plugin.php file to your WordPress site’s plugins folder and activate it. If it works, you’ll see a new “Video” option in the left navigation menu of wp-admin as in the following photo:

Now here is the code to add to the end of the file you started above(just before the closing PHP tag) that will add a meta-box with a custom field inside of it to your plugin. It adds a field to the wp-admin edit screen for the videos CPT(custom post type):

//add meta box for Video type and description:
add_meta_box(‘meta_box_html_id’, ‘Video Details’, ‘video_details_function’, ‘videos’, ‘normal’, ‘high’);
}

//##################### Video Details Metabox: ################
function video_details_function() {
global \$post;
//Noncename needed to verify where the data originated
echo ‘<input type=”hidden” name=”eventmeta_noncename” id=”eventmeta_noncename” value=”‘ .
wp_create_nonce(plugin_basename(__FILE__)) . ‘” />’;

//Get video description data if its already been entered
\$video_desc = get_post_meta(\$post->ID, ‘_video_desc’, true);

//Start video Description text field HTML:
?>
Video Description:
<input type=”text” name=”video_desc” value=”<?php echo \$video_desc; ?>” class=”widefat” />
<?php
}//end video_details_function

Save the “jafty-metabox-example-plugin.php” file and update it on your site and click on the “Video” link in wp-admin and then click on “Add New” to see the add/edit screen for your new CPT. You will notice your  custom meta-box with the heading of “Video Details”. You will also notice the meta-box contains a custom field named “Video Description”. You can see both near the bottom of the photo below:

## Saving Custom Field Data

Your not quite done however. While the code above will display the metaboxes, it does not save the data as I soon discovered. To save the data, you’ll need to add this code directly after your video_details callback function:

//hook into save_post to save the meta box data:

function save_video_desc(\$post_id) {
if (isset( \$_POST[‘video_desc’])) {
update_post_meta (\$post_id, ‘_video_desc’, strip_tags(\$_POST[‘video_desc’]));
}
}

## Adding Multiple Meta-Boxes and Custom Fields

Next I’ll show you what our final plugin file would look like if we were to add another custom field to our meta-box and then another meta-box with yet another custom field inside of it. This way you can see how more than one meta-box is added and also how to add more than one field inside of a single meta-box. Here is the complete plugin code containing a total of two meta-boxes and three total custom fields:

<?php
/**
* Plugin Name: Jafty Metabox Example Plugin
* Plugin URI: http://jafty.com/blog/crash-course-on-wordpress-plugin-development/
* Description: A Plugin that adds metaboxes to your WordPress blog or site.
* Version: 1.0
* Author: Ian L. of Jafty.com
* Author URI: http://jafty.com
*/

//Add new Custom Post Type named videos:
function create_video_posttype(){
register_post_type(‘videos’,
array(
‘labels’ => array(
‘name’ => __(‘Videos’),
‘singular_name’ => __(‘Video’)
),
‘public’ => true,
‘has_archive’ => true,
‘rewrite’ => array(‘slug’ => ‘video’),
)
);
}//end create_video_posttype function

//add the first meta box for Video type and description:
add_meta_box(‘meta_box_html_id’, ‘Video Details’, ‘video_details_function’, ‘videos’, ‘normal’, ‘high’);
//add a second meta box for Video Rating
add_meta_box(‘meta_box_html_id2’, ‘Video Rating’, ‘video_rating_function’, ‘videos’, ‘normal’, ‘high’);
}
//################## Video Details Metabox: ####################
function video_details_function() {
global \$post;

//Noncename needed to verify where the data originated
echo ‘<input type=”hidden” name=”eventmeta_noncename” id=”eventmeta_noncename” value=”‘ .
wp_create_nonce(plugin_basename(__FILE__)) . ‘” />’;

//Get the video type  if its already been entered
\$video_type = get_post_meta(\$post->ID, ‘_video_type’, true);
// Get the video description if its already been entered
\$video_desc = get_post_meta(\$post->ID, ‘_video_desc’, true);

//Start type select field HTML:
?>
Video Type: <select name=”video_type”>
<option value=”DVD”<?php if(\$video_type==”DVD”)echo ” selected”;?>>DVD<option>
<option value=”Blueray”<?php if(\$video_type==”Blueray”)echo ” selected”;?>>Blueray<option>
</select><br />
<?php
// Start video description field HTML:
?>
Video Description:
<input type=”text” name=”_location” value=”<?php echo \$video_desc; ?>” class=”widefat” />
<?php
}//end video_details_function
//##################### Video Rating Metabox: ###################
function video_rating_function() {
global \$post;

//Noncename needed to verify where the data originated
echo ‘<input type=”hidden” name=”eventmeta_noncename” id=”eventmeta_noncename” value=”‘ .
wp_create_nonce(plugin_basename(__FILE__)) . ‘” />’;

//Get the start_month data if its already been entered
\$video_rating = get_post_meta(\$post->ID, ‘_video_rating’, true);

//Start type select field HTML:
?>
Video Type: <select name=”_video_rating”>
<option value=”R”<?php if(\$video_rating==”R”)echo ” selected”;?>>R<option>
<option value=”PG”<?php if(\$video_rating==”PG”)echo ” selected”;?>>PG<option>
</select><br />
<?php
}//end video_rating_function
?>

//add your save data hook and function to save all fields here:

//hook into save_post to save the meta box data:

function save_video_data(\$post_id) {
if (isset( \$_POST[‘video_desc’])) {
update_post_meta (\$post_id, ‘_video_type’, strip_tags(\$_POST[‘video_type’]));

update_post_meta (\$post_id, ‘_video_desc’, strip_tags(\$_POST[‘video_desc’]));

update_post_meta (\$post_id, ‘_video_rating, strip_tags(\$_POST[‘video_rating’]));
}
}

That’s it! Save the above code in a PHP file and name it the same name as before and allow it to overwrite the original plugin file if you were following along and it will add another meta-box and a couple more custom fields to your custom post type. Now you should have enough information to be able to make your own custom admin meta-boxes and fields for your next WordPress plugin or theme. Here is an image of the two meta-boxes from when I tested the above code myself:

### Summary

Now you should know more than enough to make your own plugin or custom theme with its own admin meta-boxes and custom fields for any custom post types you may have. It is important to know that you can also use any other type of form element in the above examples. Feel free to experiment and use textareas, radio buttons, checkboxes etc in your own code.

## How to Include a CSS Style Sheet for a WordPress Page Within a Plugin

For years I used to simply include CSS styles in WordPress plugins that I made for myself by doing it the same ways that you would for a pure HTML website like:

## The Wrong Way:

```<style>
p{
font-family: arial;
}
</style>

Or I would do it like this with an external stylesheet:

<link rel='stylesheet' href='http://jafty.com/wp-content/plugins/plugin-name/css/frontend-style.css' type='text/css' media='all' />```

But I found out later when I started making professional plugins for clients that there is a more correct way to do it when using WordPress.

## The Right Way to Include CSS Styles in a WordPress Plugin:

The right way to include a style sheet in a custom WordPress frontend page generated by a plugin you are making is to create the style sheet in an external CSS file and include it like this:

In your plugin’s main PHP file include:

<?php

//Add frontend styles for the calendar page:
\$pluginURL = plugins_url(“”,__FILE__);
\$CSSURL = “\$pluginURL/CSS/frontend-style.css”;//change to your filename and path
wp_register_style( ‘frontend_CSS’, \$CSSURL);

?>

Then,  wherever you want your style to show up, include this:

wp_enqueue_style(‘frontend_CSS’);

I include the wp_enqueue_style function call write after wp_head normally in my custom page’s header.

I normally like to have a folder inside my main plugin folder named “CSS” or “style” where I put all my CSS style sheets for the plugin. You can see I used “CSS” in the above example. You would of course alter the URL according to the folder you placed the CSS file in. The plugins_url function used with the __FILE__ definition as the second parameter will give the full URL to the plugin when it is called within the main plugin file. I normally name the main plugin file after the plugin name or sometimes i name it index.php, but regardless, the code would be the same as long as it is within the main plugin file.

In the abov example my style sheet was named frontend-style.css, yours could be named anything you like.

## Using CSS Media Queries in Responsive Web Design

That’s right! The post of the day is going to be on how to use CSS media queries to make a responsive web page or application. The project I’m working on requires me to create a responsive events calendar application that looks good in all sized browser windows as well as mobile devices including iPhone and Android phones and tablets. This can be done very well with CSS media queries and a basic understanding of HTML and CSS. Making today’s task a little more challenging is the fact that we will be using HTML table elements. If you have any experience with HTML tables, you probably know that they can be tricky to size according to specific requirements most times. We will overcome the table cell sizing limitations in this article however.

## Common Screen Sizes

One of the most important things to take into consideration when developing a fully responsive web application for both computers and mobile devices is your users screen size. What are your users likely to be using? Some will be on a PC, some on a tablet, others on an iPhone and yet others will be on an Android or other device. The ugly truth is that there are a lot of possibilities. I have found from experience that it’s best to take into consideration the most commonly used screen sizes. I program for the most common and try to make it work resonably well in the uncommon sized screens as well because roughly up to 3% of your users could be using an odd sized screen that you haven’t programmed for. While 3% may not sound very significant, think of it like this: If your site has 1000 visitors a day like mine does, then that means up to 30 people a day are viewing your site on a less-common screen size. 30 is 3% of 1000. Here are some of the latest statistics I could find on common screen sizes used:

First I want to show you common screen sizes of Mobile Devices since they are probably the fasting growing segment of 2016:

2016 Total iOS* Android Windows Others
February 5.15 % 1.08 % 3.49 % 0.42 % 0.16 %
January 5.38 % 1.17 % 3.69 % 0.37 % 0.15 %

The above information was collected by the website w3schools.com. The data represents the users of their website according to information collected by thier servers. It shows that only slightly greater than 5% of thier website viewers view thier site on a mobile device, but your site could have more because I think the w3schools website is one that developers reference a lot and developers do their work on a computer more often than on a mobile device. That may account for some of the low figures for mobile users. Now lets look at the most commone screen sizes according to rapidtables.com:

### Common screen resolutions of rapidtables.com visitors (2/2014):

Screen resolution Display
ratio
Usage Screen size / type
1366×768 16:9 19.1% 14” Notebook / 15.6” Laptop / 18.5” monitor
1920×1080 16:9 9.4% 21.5” monitor / 23” monitor / 1080p TV
1280×800 8:5 8.5% 14” Notebook
320×568 9:16 6.4% 4” iPhone 5
1440×900 8:5 5.7% 19” monitor
1280×1024 5:4 5.5% 19” monitor
320×480 2:3 5.2% 3.5” iPhone
1600×900 16:9 4.6% 20” monitor
1024×768 4:3 3.9% 15” monitor
1680×1050 8:5 2.8% 22” monitor
360×640 9:16 2.3%
1920×1200 8:5 1.7% 24” monitor
720×1280 9:16 1.6% 4.8” Galaxy S
480×800 3:5 1.1%
1360×768 16:9 0.9%
1280×720 16:9 0.9% 720p TV

If you study the numbers above, they suggest that rapidtables.com visitors are much more likely to be on a smaller screen size device or mobile device than are w3scools.com users. I guess from reading the above data that their website has roughly up to 12% of their users using smaller screened devices such as iPhones, Androids and other mobile devices. Start working with a Seattle web developer to obtain custom and unique designs.

## CSS Media Queries

I choose to use one simple type of CSS media queries in this challenge. I like to call it the max-width technique for sizing web pages at various sizes. This is due to the fact that the technique uses ony the max-width media query as you will see with the demonstration code below.

From studying the more common screen sizes, I’ve come up with a simple plan to make my calendar application look good on just about any possible screen size. Here is my rudimentary logic:

I plan to set the maximum with of the calendar to 1000 pixels and centering it on the page. By doing this I eliminate the need for any media queries for screens over 1000 px wide! As you can see from the charts above,  there are 17 screen sizes represented and 11 of them are over 1000px wide! We have already made our work a lot easier since we only have 4 other screen widths to worry about(because 3 of them have 320px wide screens). Obviously 320px is of great concern as it is one of the most common widts on mobile phones, but I’ll also take into considertion the widths of 360px, 480px, 720px and 768px. However, some will be taken care of by the same media queries as you’ll soon discover. Here are the basic rules we will go by when making out calendar application:

• web page will be no wider than 1000px and centered.
• first media query will be set for max-width of 800px meaning that if the page size is under 800px wide the styles inside of the media query definition will be altered.
• A second media query set for a max-width of 500px will apply changes for any screen size under 500px down to the next media query.
• A third media query set for a max-width of 400px will account for any screen between400px and the next media query.
• A forth and final media query set for max-width of  320px will account for the common screen sizes of 320px and under which are the smallest group of mobile phones, so no other media queries after this one will be required.

I have outlined my logic above, now I can add my media queries to my CSS style sheet as follows:

```/*add styles for screen sizes of 800px and up. These don't need to be inside of a media query because the table's width for the calendar will be set to 1000px and centered. Tables are generally flexible enough to be reduced from 1000 to 800px without any problems given it is styled and tested correctly.*/

@media(max-width: 800px) {
//add styles for screen sizes from 500 to 800px:
}

@media(max-width: 500px) {
//add styles for screen sizes from 400 to 500px:
}

@media(max-width: 400px) {
//add styles for screen sizes from 320 to 400px:
}

@media(max-width: 320px) {
//add styles for screen sizes 320px and under:
}```

The above is a good way to start your CSS style sheet for a resposive design. You may find that you may not need to use one or more of the media query definitions. You may also find yourself adding one or two media query definitions. None-the-less, this is a good start.

## Writing and Testing your CSS Code

When I make a responsive web page, I first make the basic page with basic CSS and no media queries. Then when the basic page is complete, I start testing it at different screen sizes by making my browser window smaller and larger and seeing how the page looks at every possible width and height. Then I add styles to media queries and edit them until the page looks good at every possible size. Finally I test on actual devices such as an iPhone, Android phone and a tablet while making final adjustments according to how the page looks on the actual devices.

## How to Make an Image Cover the Entire Webpage Background with CSS3

CSS3 includes many fabulous new tricks. One of those is the background-size attribute which I will demonstrate below. This is what I have found to be the best way to make a background image cover the entire webpage background regardless of the screen size or browser window size. Also, this is a nice new modern cross-browser method that works in most modern browsers including:

• Safari 3 and above
• Firefox version 3.6 and higher
• Internet Explorer 9 and above
• Chrome
• Opera 10 and above

## CSS3 Style to Make Image Cover Whole Page Background

Here is the css style to add to any webpage to add a background image that covers the entire page background:

<style>

html{
background: url(images/bg.jpg) no-repeat center center fixed;
-webkit-background-size: cover;
-moz-background-size: cover;
-o-background-size: cover;
background-size: cover;
}

</style>

## Conclusion

This method works great for almost every site I’ve used it on, so give it a chance. I know CSS3 still scares some people, but using it is a pretty safe bet these days. It’s been around long enough now to be considered the standard in my opinion. Some of you may have noticed that I have SEO as a category for this article. Why? That is because proper mobile development is beginning to effect search results in  Google as of April of 2015, so sites with correct mobile optimization will get ranked better! So optimize your website for mobile devices today or you may lose your Google rank!

## HTML Color Chart and Color Picker

I’ve made several of these HTML Color Charts and Pickers of the years and I can never find one when I really need it, so I am putting a couple of them here for reference, so enjoy! These color charts will enable you to find any HTML color, hex color or RGB color you might be looking for.

## HTML Hex Color Chart

You can click on any color below to get the HTML hex css color code. If you need to convert that to rgb, use the tool further down on the page to do so.

## Hex RBG Color Picker

Use the slider to the right to pick a color then click in the left to get the HTML color code or enter your own color in the upper input field.

## You Can Now Contribute Web Development Content

Jafty Interactive Web Development has decided to start accepting user contributed blog posts! You can now submit any post that is related to out blog theme of web development and it will be published after admin moderation. Along with posting articles, they even teach their clients where to find a cheap web design which can help them save a ton on the marketing sector of their business. Jafty also is in association with many SEO audit services, which’ll only increase the exposure we get on your submitted blogs. As long as it is on topic and I think it improves the quality of my blog, it will probably be published. Some topics I picked from https://onlinemoneypage.com/ and would like to encourage users to submit posts about include:

• PHP
• JavaScript
• HTML
• XML
• CSS
• Search Engine Optimization/SEO and The best service curating it
• Freelancing as a web developer
• Freelance writing
• working from home
• Laravel
• WordPress
• C Languages
• Java
• ASP.net
• JQUERY
• Ruby on rails
• MySQL Database
• SQL
• PHP and MySQL
• Linux Command Line
• Linux and Windows Servers
• MAC and web development
• PC vs MAC
• Mobile Development
• Mobile website optimization
• PERL
• AJAX
• CURL
• Graphics
• anything else related to web development!

That’s just a list to fuel your mind. Feel free to submit any related topic. I will accept anything related to web development. I’m looking forward to some great blog posts! – Ian L.

## Using XMLRPC to get a List of Posts from WordPress

Today I’m going to demonstrate how one can go about remotely fetching a list of posts for any post type including custom post types remotely using XML-RPC in WordPress. What I thought was going to be a simple task ended up taking me the majority of an entire day to work out yesterday, so I am posting my solution here for future reference and to help others solve the same problem.

So during my quest to figure out a solution for listing posts for a remote WordPress blog inside the wp-admin of another WordPress blog, I came across a couple promising functions such as wp.getPosts, blogger_getRecentPosts and similar existing XML-RPC functions that reside within wp-includes/class-IXR.php. None of those did the trick however, so below is the final solution I came up with which involves extending the XML-RPC class noted.

## Extending the XML-RPC functions in WordPress

Here’s what you can add to your theme’s functions.php or plugin file to extend the class-IXR.php class to allow remote listing of post titles for any given registered post type:

function wp_getTits() {
// Get the ‘Profiles’ post type
/*\$args = array(
‘post_type’ => ‘oils-blends’,
);*/
\$args = array(
‘nopaging’ => true,
‘numberposts’    => 300,//increase if more than 300 products exist!
‘post_type’        => ‘oils-blends’,
‘post_status’   => ‘publish’//only exporting published products!
);
\$loop = new WP_Query(\$args);
\$tits = “”;
while(\$loop->have_posts()): \$loop->the_post();

\$titis = get_the_title();
\$tits .= \$titis.”zxz”;

endwhile;
wp_reset_query();
return \$tits;
}

function wp_new_xmlrpc_methods( \$methods ) {
\$methods[‘wp.getTits’] = ‘wp_getTits’;
return \$methods;
}

After you add the above code to functions.php or your plugin file, then you can use the following block of code within a plugin file of another WordPress site to remotely list the posts of a WordPress blog on another server. I added the following code inside my plugin which was used to post to a remote WordPress site. I needed to read the existing posts in order to know whether to write or update the posts that I was pushing to the second blog:

<?php
echo “<p>Starting to get posts from remote website…</p><h3>List of Titles:</h3>”;

\$rpcurl = “http://example.com.au/wordpress_dir/xmlrpc.php”;

\$request = xmlrpc_encode_request(‘wp.getTits’,’1′);
\$ch = curl_init();
curl_setopt(\$ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, \$request);
curl_setopt(\$ch, CURLOPT_URL, \$rpcurl);
curl_setopt(\$ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
curl_setopt(\$ch, CURLOPT_TIMEOUT, 1);
\$results = curl_exec(\$ch);
//echo “Curl results: \$results<hr />”;
curl_close(\$ch);
//separate titles by zxz string:
\$titleArray = explode(“zxz”,\$results);
foreach(\$titleArray as \$curTit){
echo “\$curTit<br />”;
}//END FOREACH TITLE
echo “<p>Finished…</p>”;

?>

That’s all folks. Now you can remotely fetch posts from one WordPress site to another without any prior knowledge of post IDs etc. Now if you do know the post IDs, then you could use the existing XML-RPC method, wp.getPost which uses the post ID as an argument. I’ll share this code with you too even though it wasn’t the final solution for me, it could work for someone that happens to know the post IDs for which they need to grab remotely. The following code was tested and working as of WordPress version 4.2.3:

## Listing Posts Remotely using wp.getPost

As you will see, it is a lot easier to get post data when you know the post ID. Here is all you have to add to your WordPress plugin file to remotely grab a post using wp.getPost when you know the post’s ID:

<?php
echo “<p>Starting to get post data from remote site…</p>”;

\$rpcurl = “http://example.com.au/wordpress_dir/xmlrpc.php”;
\$post_id = 2820;
include(‘../wp-includes/class-IXR.php’);
\$client = new IXR_Client(\$rpcurl);

if (!\$client->query(‘metaWeblog.getPost’,\$post_id, \$USER,\$PASS))
{
echo(‘Error occurred during getting post.’ . \$client->getErrorCode().”:”.\$client->getErrorMessage());
}
\$post = \$client->getResponse();

var_dump(\$post);
echo “<hr /><p>Finished….</p>”;
?>

Of course you have to edit the URL, username and password above, but after that it will work fine.

## Summary

So I’ve given you two ways to get post data from WordPress sites remotely. If you know the post IDs, then use the last method which is simpler, otherwise you have to extend the class explained above using the first two code snippets on this page. Good luck!

## Fixing Encoding Problems When Creating WordPress Posts With PHP

I’m documenting this simple fix because it took me over an hour to figure out. I was writing a WordPress plugin that would publish custom post types from one blog to many others. In doing so, I used PHP to write code that would read posts from the master blog and write them to another blog, or several blogs actually. The problem was that some characters such has hyphens and the letter y would end up encoded incorrectly in the blog that the post was copied to. Here’s two images that show what happened. The first is an image of the WYSIWYG editor in WordPress when viewing the post in the edit screen using the text tab. The second image is when viewing the post in the HTML tab of the WYSIWYG editor:

…so as you can see in the areas I’ve circled above, there is definitely something wrong with the character encoding happening somewhere.

## Fixing Character Problems in WordPress and PHP

The solution was to use the following line of code on the post text before writing it to the WordPress database:

\$txt = iconv(“UTF-8”, “ISO-8859-1//TRANSLIT”, \$txt);

By using the PHP iconv function to convert the txt variable to a new encoding, I was able to stop the encoding problem and all was great! I’m not going to explain this in detail because frankly the finer details of PHP and HTML encoding elude me to this day after coding for over 15 years. I understand we need different encoding for different languages, but why can’t we have more of a standard? It would make life so much easier!

## Summary

I hope this helps someone as it did me. Good luck with your own encoding problem. I find it is often necessary to play with several PHP encoding functions to solve various problems, so if this doesn’t do the trick, try htmlentities or utf8_encode and similar PHP functions to modify your text.

# CodeLobster PHP Edition Software Review

Written by Ian Lincicome of Jafty Interactive Web Development – Jafty.com

For the past couple of weeks, I have been evaluating CodeLobster’s latest release of “CodeLobster PHP Edition” which I’ll refer to as simply “CodeLobster” from here on out in this review. The current edition at the time of writing this review was CodeLobster PHP Edition Professional Version 5.4. I am reviewing CodeLobster because I am looking for a tool I can use for my web development business, Jafty Interactive Web Development. Also I was given a break on purchasing the pro version of CodeLobster in exchange for writing a product review on my site, Jafty.com. Please note that I am under no obligation to write a positive review. I will be as brutally honest as ever, I assure you. This review will include both the pros and cons of using CodeLobster rather than a one-sided review like many company’s probably hire writers to write. In fact, if that was my intention, I wouldn’t have mentioned that the someone had asked me to write this review. My ulterior motive for writing the review is to find the perfect program to do my work for my business. The rest of the sectors, like recruiting a marketing team and hiring Salesforce support services have been taken care of. I am also evaluating other products as well because I want to work with the best.

I’m looking for an application that will allow me to seamlessly edit several types of code on several different servers without having to use a separate code editor, FTP program, web browser and Language reference material. To this date, I have been using three separate applications to accomplish my day-to-day work. I used FileZilla to copy files from a client’s web server to my desktop. I used Notepad++ to edit the code files. Finally, before using FileZilla again to upload the files back to the client’s server, I viewed the file in Firefox to see how it looks in a browser. That is if it is not a server-side language like PHP which I use the most. If I had to edit a PHP file, I had yet another couple of steps to perform because I’d have to upload the file to the server to view it and then repeat the whole entire process again if I had more changes to make to get it perfect. So I used FileZilla, Notepad++ and Firefox mostly up until now. I figure I could probably almost double my productivity with one good tool that does it all.

## Technologies CodeLobster Supports

CodeLobster supports a wide range of technologies including:

• PHP
• HTML
• JavaScript
• CSS
• SQL
• MySQL
• Version control systems such as SVN, Git etc.
• CakePHP
• CodeIgniter
• WordPress
• Drupal
• Joomla
• jQuery
• Smarty
• Symfony
• Yii

CodeLobster also has a very wide assortment of features including all the standard components you would expect in a code editor and many extras. I found a helpful built-in Help feature that also links to online help if you can’t find what you need in the built-in documentation. The online documentation is surprisingly complete for a newer product.

## Installing CodeLobster

When I first installed CodeLobster, it allowed me to select what languages/technologies I wanted to install. I only deselected two that I knew for sure I would most likely never use. I figured if there was even a small chance that I might use one of the items listed, then I should leave it checked. That way I will be prepared in case I need that particular technology in the future.

## Pros and Cons

Once I began using CodeLobster I noticed both good and bad points regarding the program. I loved how versatile the program was right out of the box. I did not like the way the word wrap feature worked(View/Word Wrap). It breaks up words rather than splitting lines by the nearest space. I’d prefer it to not break up words at all or at least do so in a more logical manner(by syllables with hyphens for example). From what I understand from reading the forums and talking with my contact, CodeLobster plans to add an option between soft and hard word-wrap. Hard wrap is how it is now and soft wrap would be a word-wrap technique that doesn’t break up words. I do hope they add it soon because it was one of the of the first things I noticed.

One of the first features I noticed and liked was the completely configurable hot-keys. You can configure any hot-key by going to Tools/Preferences/IDE/Hot keys. Another nice feature is the Find and Replace feature that is very much like that of Notepad++ including regular expression search and the ability to search and replace text in files, folders and sub-folders. This can be a huge time-saver for coders.

One of the first things I noticed and did not like was the lack of a decent spell checker. I know notepad++ has the option as a plugin, but not as a built-in feature. Either way would be great, but I think it should be a standard built-in feature. I realize that auto-complete helps with this, but not if you are writing a plain text file such as I am doing right now while writing this review. I talked to my contact at CodeLobster Software about this and he assured me that they plan to add a robust spell-checking feature in the near future. He mentioned that they plan on making several additions to the software and will be releasing future editions with new features and improvements ASAP. So, while CodeLobster may not have everything I would like it to have at the moment, I was assured that they are heading in the right direction with future expansion plans.

Another nice feature I also noticed right away was CodeLobster’s tool bars. The tool bars are completely configurable and have a nice drag and drop feature to move tool bar items around as you please. The same can be said for the man different windows that can be added or removed from the work area.

CodeLobster is a code editor first & foremost and it does a wonderful job at editing PHP code which is my code of choice. If you are looking for a word processor, CodeLobster probably won’t fit the bill, but it is a very robust code editor that can handle all of the languages I use for web development and several others.

CodeLobster’s plugin ability is great to have in a code editing program. The pro version of CodeLobster comes with many plugins that the free version does not include from what I understand, so I think the pro version is definitely worth the cost for those of you who work with frameworks such as WordPress, Joomla, CakePHP, CodeIgniter, etc. I currently own the Pro version and I am happy with its performance so far and will be much happier once some of the additions are made in the near future.

Even the free version would be great for coders who use many different coding languages regularly but don’t need the extra plugin abilities that require the pro version. As a full-time web developer, I mostly use PHP, HTML, CSS, JavaScript, WordPress and MySQL. I also occasionally use Joomla, XML, Perl, Python, Drupal, Smarty, Laravel, CakePHP and others, so I require the Pro version of CodeLobster myself. If you only use the most common languages such as PHP, HTML, CSS and JavaScript, you can probably do fine with the free version. Some of the things I require the Pro version for include WordPress support, Smarty, Laravel and CakePHP. Honestly there are to many features to list here. You should visit their web page at http://www.codelobster.com/details_phped.html to figure out which version is best for you. They also have a Lite version which you can read about on their site since I won’t be covering CodeLobster Lite here.

As I continue to evaluate the software I am finding there are more and more features that I like. As a web developer, I need a tool that allows me to quickly edit code, test it and upload it to the client’s server. So far, CodeLobster seems to be meeting my three main requirements quite well in most cases.

## FTP Feature

CodeLobster’s FTP ability is a very powerful feature. The FTP feature allows you to set up as many FTP connections as you need. I was able to copy all of my client’s FTP connections from FileZilla into CodeLobster. Now I am able to click on a connection, edit a server file, preview it and upload it back to the server seamlessly from within a single application! This is huge for me because I used to use at least three different applications to do the same thing without CodeLobster. I can see that my work will get done a lot faster by using CodeLobster. In fact, I am already getting work done faster after only two days of using it.

The FTP feature is very functional, but for a guy like me who hates to read instructions, it took a little bit of fooling around using trial and error methods to get it set up for the first time with all of my client’s 20+ FTP connections and configuring basic settings. Everything I needed to accomplish my FTP tasks is in CodeLobster, but the FTP system does need some improvements. For example it gave me trouble when trying to connect to a SFTP connection. It worked great with all non-secure FTP connections however. As luck would have it, out of over 20 current clients I work with, only one uses SFTP rather than FTP, so I am unable to test it on other secure SFTP servers to see if the problem is just with this one server or not. Unfortunately this is one of my regular clients so it is going to be a problem for me. It did connect using SFTP, but had issues when trying to edit files on the server which I was able to do fine with regular FTP connections. I did bring this issue to the attention of my CodeLobster contact however and he assures me it will be looked into ASAP.

Regarding the GUI set-up for FTP, in my personal opinion, the way the windows are organized in the work area could have been done a little better. For example, when I use FTP, I have to go to Tools/FTP to open the explorer window that lists FTP connections. That alone will allow you to open your FTP connection but won’t allow you to see what’s going on. If there was an error and the only window you had open in your work area was the explorer window, you wouldn’t see that error. This is where I think it could have been done better. I would have programmed it so that when you open the FTP window, the output window opens along with it, right above it, similar to how FileZilla allows you to view console output. Of course this is just my opinion, it may not bother others and actually I am starting to get used to it so it doesn’t bother me as much as time passes.

## Search Features

The “Find in Files”(Search/Find in Files…) feature is great for finding text in open files. It could be improved to allow file search on the local directory tree files as well, but it is sufficient the way it is. Also I love the regular expression search as I mentioned earlier.

Also, I often use the incremental search feature when I edit code. While I am glad it has this feature, a small nuisance for me is that the incremental search box is not persistent across different views. I think it would be nice if the incremental search box would stay at the bottom of all view tabs once it is opened. I don’t think it should close unless you manually close it. Again, this is just my preference, not a bug.

## Nice-to-Have Features

One more thing I liked while test driving CodeLobster is that when editing .html and .css files I could hover over class names in the HTML or CSS code and it would show me the associated style declaration. Also when hovering over items in a .css file, it shows me information regarding the browser compatibility of the CSS code.

The HTML preview feature works very well. It is a built-in browser that shows the results of your code live without having to open a separate browser window. All you do is click on the “preview” tab. I did notice that sometimes you have to hit the refresh button to see your changes, but that is to be expected.

I also enjoyed the code formatting features very much. I tested them on an HTML file that I copied from an online web page. At first the HTML code was ran all together with no line breaks or indents. I simply went to the tool bar and clicked “Tools/Code Format/Format” and it formatted it perfectly. I am sure it will work with other supported languages equally well.

When you double-click on a variable name in the PHP editor, it highlights the variable and the dollar sign, so you can copy the whole thing and paste or search for it easily. Notepad++ wouldn’t include the dollar sign and it was a bother to me.

CodeLobster has what they call a “Map” feature(View/Windows/Map) that I’ve never seen before. It is basically a small window with a tiny view of the document you’re working on. It allows you to click anywhere in the Map to quickly jump to a section of the file that you need to work on. It is a great feature for working with large files.

## Conclusion

I have concluded that CodeLobster will indeed fill a need in my current web development process. It is not yet developed enough to be the only tool I use simply because of that one SFTP connection it will not work correctly with. However I found that I can combine it with another tool, CyberDuck, as a work-around until the developers of CodeLobster work out the final kinks in the software and add some more nice-to-have type features such as spell-check and . In the end it still gets a thumbs up for all the wonderful features it has and for its robustness in general. Eventually I believe it will make the perfect all-in-one coding tool for my company. The other contender for my new all-in-one coding tool was CyberDuck and I can honestly say that CodeLobster has much more potential. CyberDuck is also in its early stages of development and it needs several improvements to be truly useful. CyberDuck fails in comparison to CodeLobster when it comes to Features. CodeLobster is truly made to be an all-in-one coding solution while CyberDuck is missing many of the necessary features to be a real competitor.

If you are interested in how I combined CodeLobster with CyberDuck to make up for CodeLobster’s short-coming when connecting by SFTP, I’ll quickly go over how to do it. Create a bookmark(that’s what CyberDuck calls their FTP/SFTP connections) in CyberDuck to the SFTP server. CyberDuck allows you to set it up so you can use your own code editor with it in a way that allows you to click on a file from a remote server and open it in that editor. Then when you save it in that editor(CodeLobster), it saves it to the server. That way I still have a seamless process even though I have to combine two tools to get what I truly want.

## How to Make a Completely Responsive Website Quickly

In today’s blog post, I’m going to show you one way you can make a completely responsive web site with six pages while only coding one HTML file and one CSS file! I will also demonstrate how to make a horizontal responsive navigation menu for your site. If you want a vertical responsive menu, you can adapt the code accordingly yourself. This tutorial also demonstrates an alternative to using image maps as I believe the method I use here for navigation menus with images works better than image maps. The advantage to using an image or several images for your navigation menu is that they respond better at different screen sizes than text does.

Here’s a link to the final product. Note that I used a very plan image for the navigation text, but you can use any type of image you want for yours. I also used a single image where you could use one for each navigation link with a little modification of the code. I am trying to say that this demonstrates the code only and the look and feel you will need to make your own because mine is ugly as it is for demonstrating code only:

http://jafty.com/ResponsiveSite.html

## Using Divs Instead of Image Maps

While this tutorial is technically about doing a responsive website with a image for a navigation menu, this exact same method can be used in place of image maps because, if you’ve tried to make a responsive page that has an image map in it, you know it doesn’t work well.

Starting at the top of our page, the first thing we will do is build our .html file with a top navigation menu. Okay, lets’ start our HTML:

```<html>
<title>test</title>
<body>
<div id="page">
<div>
<div>
<div><a href=""></a></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</body>
</html>```

To follow along with the tutorial, copy and paste the above code into a new notepad document and save it as test.html. The first div includes an img tag in it as you can see above. Here is the actual image to give you a better idea of what I have done here. So “topnav0map.png” refers to the following image:

topnav0map.png:

Again, if you’re following along, right click on the above image and save it to the same directory as your test.html file. I put the image in a blue background here so you can see it because it is mostly white over a transparent layer done in Photoshop. The reason I use an image here is because it is responsive when you set the width to 100% and height to auto. This is about when I got the idea for an image map to link the items in the nav as you see them in the above image, but quickly found out that image maps do not resize well when changing either the page size or the zoom level when looking at the page live. therefore I used divs as they are more responsive when used properly with percentages as you’ll see below when I get to the CSS part.

## Responsive CSS Layout

The most important part is probably the responsive CSS code. Here is what I used:

```#page{
position:relative;
width:100%;
max-width:900px;
background-color:#222288;
margin:0 auto;
min-height:1200px;
margin-top:25px;
}

position: absolute;
top: 100px;
left:0px;
width: 100%;
min-height: 30px;
text-align: center;
z-index: 99999;
}
.navwrap{
top:-20px;
min-height:27px;
position: relative;
}

.nav_item_wrap{
position:relative;
width:100%;
max-width:1125px;
height:27px;
border: 1px solid brown;
margin:0 auto;
}

.nav_item{
position: relative;
border: 1px solid red;
height: 33px;
display: block;
float: left;
z-index: 999;
}

.nav_item a{
width: 100%;
height: 100%;
position: relative;
display: block;
}

.nav1{
width: 7%;
margin-left: 9%;
}

.nav2{
width: 10%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.nav3{
width: 10%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.nav4{
width: 20%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.nav5{
width: 19%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.nav6{
width: 10%;
margin-left: 1%;
}

.pg{
position:relative;
width:100%;
max-width:900px;
min-width: 225px;
background-color:#8a1734;
margin:0 auto;
min-height:600px;
margin-top:125px;
}```

First, I used the “page” div as a page wrapper by setting a standard 900px width which you may adjust to your needs. I also set width to 100% which is very important for responsive designs, but also notice the max-width is set to 900px this is so your page won’t go crazy-wide when you open a large browser window on a PC. If you want to always cover the width of the screen regardless, then you could remove this, but I recommend using a maximum width myself for most scenarios. Next I’ll include a short description for each CSS declaration after “page” which I just explained:

• header_menu_overlay – is used to position the overall navigation menu where you want. You’ll see I decided to put it a hundred pixels from the top of the page, but you can put yours wherever you need it even at the bottom of the page for a footer menu if that’s what you need. the header-menu-overlay div is the one that holds the image as well as the rest of navigation divs. Be sure to set the width only of the image in this div and set that width to 100% so it is responsive.
• navwrap – is the div that wraps the other divs we will use for our links. we set it’s position to relative and top to a negative number to force it on top of the image above it.
• nav_item_wrap – wraps around the individual menu items and has a margin of “0 auto” so it centers the group of menu items to the rest of the page nicely.
• nav_item – this class is set to all of the navigation item divs and is used to set their height, display and to float them left which is important for responsiveness.
• nav_item a – is a style definition for the anchor/link tags inside of the nav_item div. Without this the links will not work. It sets the width and height to 100% of the containing element. You have to set “position: relative”, width and height for this to work.
• nav1 – nav6 – the next six CSS declarations are used to set each individual menu item’s width and margin-left properties since they can all be different.

## Add CSS Classes & Content to HTML:

Okay now we just need to add the classes above in the proper spots in our original HTML code and add some content for each page so that your new HTML page looks like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<title>test</title>
<body>
<div id=”page”>
<div class=”navwrap”>
<div class=”nav_item_wrap”>
<div class=”nav_item nav1″><a href=”#pg1″></a></div>
<div class=”nav_item nav2″><a href=”#pg2″></a></div>
<div class=”nav_item nav3″><a href=”#pg3″></a></div>
<div class=”nav_item nav4″><a href=”#pg4″></a></div>
<div class=”nav_item nav5″><a href=”#pg5″></a></div>
<div class=”nav_item nav6″><a href=”#pg6″></a></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>

<div class=”pg”><a name=”pg1″>page 1</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 1 content here…</h1>
</div>

<div class=”pg”><a name=”pg2″>page 2</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 2 content here…</h1>
</div>

<div class=”pg”><a name=”pg3″>page 3</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 3 content here…</h1>
</div>

<div class=”pg”><a name=”pg4″>page 4</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 4 content here…</h1>
</div>

<div class=”pg”><a name=”pg5″>page 5</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 5 content here…</h1>
</div>

<div class=”pg”><a name=”pg6″>page 6</a>
<h1>Place all of your page 6 content here…</h1>
</div>
</div>
</body>
</html>

Now you should be done and you have a completely responsive website in no time at all! All you need to do is go back and add page code to each page’s section. Simply replace the existing code inside of the H1 tags to make your page headers and add more content below each to build out your content. If you followed the tutorial to the tee, your page should look like my finished example page here:

http://jafty.com/ResponsiveSite.html

## Summary

So if you followed this tutorial, you should have learned quite a bit about responsive design. Not only should you be able to grasp how to develop a navigation menu from this article, but you should now be able to understand how to replace an inline image map with responsive divs and even how to make an entire responsive website using the techniques demonstrated here. Remember to use percentages instead of pixels for widths and even heights wherever you can and your design will be responsive and evenly laid out for all devices. Congratulations, you are now a responsive developer if you understood all of this. Good Luck!

## Sell PHP, JavaScript, C++, C# and Other Scripts and Tools on Jafty.com

Yes, we have started a store on Jafty.com which can be found at Jafty.com/shop. Currently shoppers can find a limited collection of my own scripts and tools for sale. I would like to give my readers a chance to sell their own script and tools here as well, so I am opening it to the public upon approval by me of course. As long as I can see that your scripts are useful and have a potential that someone visiting my site will purchase them, I will publish them. To submit your script for review, simply send me an email at linian11@yahoo.com with a link to your script or attach it to the email and include the amount you expect to receive for each sale made and I will promptly give you a decision on whether or not we will sell your items on Jafty.com.

## Creating a Web Development Environment

This week, I decided it was time to upgrade my web development tools so I contacted the professionals at SEO Root and got right into business. When you reach my age and have been coding for over 20 years, you have to upgrade every once in a while. I am doing this because I know there are faster and better ways to do what I do everyday. I also wanted to document the new system I create for myself as a seasoned web developer so that those of you just starting out can gain some insight.

First, I had to layout what my needs as a web developer were. I simply made a list of the technologies I use every day and some I use regularly but not every day necessarily and ordered the list in order of priority. The first items on my list are technologies I use the most:

1. PHP
2. HTML
3. CSS
4. JavaScript
5. MySQL
6. WordPress
7. Woocommerce
8.  jQuery
9. Photoshop
10. SEO
11. Three.js 3D programming
12. FTP
13. Perl
14. C++
15. C#
16. Ajax
17. Blender
18. Gimp
19. Unity 3D Development
20. XHTML
21. XML

As you can see, I use over 20 web technologies in my day to day work and I didn’t even list them all, but those are the most significant ones off the top of my head that I use. My goal is to put together a work environment with the most important of those technologies in mind, and so have hired SEO consulting services to aid me with this. Ultimately I wish to create an environment that focuses on speed and the ability to make the top technologies I use to work together in a more organized fashion. For example an app that allows me to code in many languages and preview server-side code live in a local server would be one of the primary objectives of my new routine.

With that in mind, I am going to narrow down my above list to what I use in my day to day work from which I actually make money from and do the most. Those would be mostly the ones at the top of my list, but this gives me the opportunity to rethink what I need the most and come up with a work environment that best facilitates my needs as a web developer. Here’s what I came up with in the end:

• PHP
• HTML
• CSS
• JavaScript
• MySQL
• WordPress
• Woocommerce
• Graphic Design
• SEO
• FTP
• Perl

Several of the items in my first list were related to JavaScript such as jQuery, Three.js and Ajax, so really, my main objective is to just have JavaScript available in my work environment and it will basically cover all the related technologies as well for the most part. There is no way we are going to make an efficient work environment with over 20 technologies, so it is important to narrow your list down as much as is practical. There were also a few different methods of creating graphics on my first list and instead of naming Photoshop, Gimp, Blender, etc, I just put “Graphic Design” on my short-list because that enables me to think in more broad terms about what applications I can use that might be able to accomplish the same tasks as those tools all rolled up in a more advanced tool(if that is possible). I will need to consult the specialists from superior web design in Ottawa to make sure I am doing it the right way.  If you  look to design and build your new website, or redesign and upgrade your existing site, visit https://www.akeaweb.com/accessibility-consulting/ .

## Searching for Applications

My next task was to find programs and applications that will help speed up the web development process. First, I will list the programs and applications I use currently and from there figure out where I can make improvements. So I copy and paste my short-list from above and add after each technology what tool or program I use to accomplish tasks related to each technology:

• PHP ——————- Notepad++, Filezilla, Firefox, IE, Safari, Chrome
• HTML —————– Notepad++, Filezilla, Firefox, IE, Safari, Chrome
• CSS ——————– Notepad++, Filezilla, Firefox, IE, Safari, Chrome
• JavaScript ———– Notepad++ , Filezilla, Firefox, IE, Safari, Chrome
• Graphic Design – Photoshop, Gimp, Blender, Unity, MakeHuman, FileZilla, Firefox, Notepad++
• SEO ——————– Notepad++, Firefox, Various Service Providers
• Perl ——————– Notepad++, Putty, Filezilla

So from the above exercise, I was able to make a comprehensive list of the programs and applications I use when doing my web development work:

3. Filezilla
5. Firefox
6. Internet Explorer(IE)
7. Safari
8. Chrome
9. Putty
10. Photoshop
11. Gimp
12. Blender
13. Unity
14. MakeHuman

So out of those 14 programs, I don’t actually use them all everyday and I use some more than others. For example, I am more of a programmer than a graphic designer. That’s why I call myself a “Web Developer” and not a “Web Designer”. So numbers 10 – 14 on the list can go into my “Nice to Have” category and do not require crucial changes since I only use them every once in a while and it’s not a huge deal to keep using what I use now for those. If you are primarily a web designer however, these applications would be higher up on your list of tools you use and you WOULD want to give more thought to whether you can find better tools and tools that can combine the abilities of several of those. For example, Photoshop can do everything Gimp can do for the most part, so you might want to drop Gimp as a regular tool and use Photoshop more often. Then Unity, Blender and MakeHuman are all 3D modeling tools used more for video game development than web development, but if you use these regularly, you can probably search and find a tool that does most of what you need to do using those tools all rolled up in one good tool. Actually Unity is close. I try to learn to do what models and textures I can right in Unity instead of going to Blender to create them and then import them into Unity which takes more time, but sometimes it is still necessary to do.

Anyway, being first and foremost a web developer and not a designer, the tools most important to me right now are the first ones on my list and can be narrowed down to these:

1. Notepad++ is what I currently use for most of my coding needs.
2. PHPMyAdmin is a must have for all of my MySQL database manipulation needs currently.
3. Filezilla is what I always use to download files from client’s web servers. Then I edit them and upload them back to the server using Filezilla once again.
4. Firefox is my web browser of choice since it is by far the most standards compliant of all the available popular web browsers. The others listed above are only used at the end of a project to check for cross-browser compatibility and there is no real way to get around having to use them all to properly debug your web applications.
5. Putty is a great tool I also use often to access client’s web servers for just about anything that I cannot do through the Filezilla FTP program. Tasks I use Putty for include tweaking PHP settings, changing ownership of files and editing server configuration files.

The next thing I have to ask myself is where can I make improvements in my development process and what tools are involved. After that I can search for better tools to accomplish those goals. From what I gather after examining my own habits and tools that I use, I figure the most improvement can be made in the areas of FTP, Code editing and Previewing the results of the code I write.

I came up with the above conclusion by thinking about where it seems like I waste the most time. Also I kept in mind what is possible to change and I figured that recent developments in developer tools probably will allow me to be able to improve the way I edit code, the way I update files and the way I view server-side scripts while in the process of coding them. Here’s my current most common process in my day to day work routine:

1. I go to Firefox and locate the problem on a client’s website or the area of the website that they may want something added to.
2. Then, I open Filezilla and locate the files involved that need editing on the server and download them to my desktop for editing.
3. Next, I will normally open Notepad++ and work on the PHP, HTML, CSS and/or JavaScript code until a portion of the solution is accomplished.
4.  Then I have to use Filezilla again to upload that file back to the web server for testing.
5. After that, I open the webpage in Firefox to see if it works and to plan what I have to do next.
6. I go back to Notepad++ and make more changes.
7. I upload with Filezilla again and again view the progress in Firefox and keep repeating steps 4,5 and 6 until the changes appear correct.
8. Then finally, I check the progress in all other popular browsers such as IE, Chrome and Safari to make sure it all works. Again here I have to repeat steps four through six some more until all problems are resolved with cross-browser compatibility.

As you can see, there are some seriously repeated functions that can take up a lot of precious development time in my current process. The best way to speed the process up would be to eliminate the process of having to upload the files to he server every time I make a round of changes and view it in a browser then go back to notepad++. With this acknowledgement in mind, I need to find a tool that allows me to do the following important steps in my web development process:

1. edit several types of code in one place.
2. get the code to the server seamlessly for testing.
3. and view the output in a browser.

So the best place for improvement in my process is within those three steps. If I could find the perfect tool to accomplish all three, that would be perfect.

## Finding Tools to Improve your Workflow

So, while looking for tools to accomplish these feats, Here is what I found.

## CyberDuck

The first one I tried after reading reviews and program descriptions all across the web, was a not-so-well-known application called CyberDuck. After testing CyberDuck for about a week or so, I found that it met most of these needs, but had it’s pros and cons like any other application. Let’s examine those pros and cons:

### CyberDuck Pros:

• allows for the importing of FTP connection information from Filezille to CyberDuck. This is great because if you have a lot of clients like I do, you have a lot of FTP connections and it would take a lot of time to copy them all manually. In CyberDuck, they call FTP connections “bookmarks” this was strange to me and I didn’t know what they were for the first day or so, but once I figured out what they were, I was able to use the application much more efficiently.
• CyberDuck has an FTP application built in.
• It allows you to link your favorite text editor or code editor to the FTP function so all you do is click on a file in the server’s document tree and it opens in an editor on your local machine! So, it downloads a copy of the file and opens it in your editor in other words. So in my case, I click on a file in the document tree and it opens up in Notepad++ for editing.
• When I save the file after making changes in Notepad++, it automatically uploads the changes to the remote server without me having to do anything but click on “Save” in Notepad++. This saves a lot of time. Even though I am actually using two programs, CyberDuck and Notepad++, it seems like I’m only using one because there is a nice seamless integration of the two performed within CyberDuck.

### Cons of Using CyberDuck

There are not a lot of cons, but the ones that bothered me were:

1. It drops the connection to the server more often than Filezilla did it seems like.
2. While it combined two of my three main functnionalities I was seeking, it did not allow for viewing of the code changes live on the server. I still would have to go to Firefox to do that.

All in all, CyberDuck is a great tool. It is still new and has some bugs to work out, but I will definitely follow it and use it while looking for a better solution. Perhaps it will evolve into that perfect solution in a future version. Who knows.

## CodeLobster PHP Edition

Next I got an email to let me know of a new program called CodeLobster that was supposed to be the perfect PHP code editor and much more. I am giving it a try right now, so I’ll have to come back with most of my review of CodeLobster, but right out of the box I notice that it has a wide range of code editing abilities and features, is expandable and very well made. The only drawbacks I’ve noticed so far are minor such as the word wrap feature breaks up words in bad places and there is no spell check that I can find for editing plain .txt files. It seems great for editing PHP code so far though.

To get expert help regarding SEO and web designing, go to TheDigitalSwarm.com and opt for their services.

 <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />

## Edit Files Live on the Server

I’ve been a web developer for many  years now and I must say I feel a little foolish for not thinking of this earlier. I’ve been wasting countless amounts of time waiting for files to upload and doing the mundane tasks involved in updating files and uploading them to a server when I didn’t really have to. Here’s why.

Today I got fed up with editing my file in Notepad++, switching to Filezilla,  finding the file in a folder on my desktop, uploading the file by dragging it to Filezilla and finally testing my online website or app. I decided to Google the term “Edit files live on server” and found https://cyberduck.io/ that has an amazing product which allows you to type in your FTP details, just like I used to in Filezilla, and open a connection to my server. Then it gives me a directory tree on my server. CyberDuck allows me to click on any file on my server and open it in Notepad++ on my desktop, edit it and save it right back to the server without having to click and drag it to another program like I used to do for so many years.

## JavaScript Remove Item from Array

Here is my quick and dirty, but good and intuitive, method for deleting an item from an array. The example below is given in a loop and also demonstrates how to build an array and get an array’s length. Three in one, you can’t loose with this demo!

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>

<p>Click the button to remove two elements from the array.</p>

<button onclick=”myFunction(‘Banana’)”>-Banana</button>
<button onclick=”myFunction(‘Orange’)”>-Orange</button>
<button onclick=”myFunction(‘Apple’)”>-Apple</button>
<button onclick=”myFunction(‘Mango’)”>-Mango</button>

<p id=”demo”></p>

<script>
var fruits = [“Banana”, “Orange”, “Apple”, “Mango”];
document.getElementById(“demo”).innerHTML = fruits;

function myFunction(frt) {
//iterate over array:
for(i=0;i<fruits.length;i++){
if(fruits[i]==frt){
fruits.splice(i, 1);
}
}//end foreach
document.getElementById(“demo”).innerHTML = fruits;
}
</script>
</body>
</html>

To make the above work, simply save it in a file and call it anything.html and open it in your favorite, javascript enabled, browser such as Firefox. Then click on “-Apple”(minus Apple) and it will remove the Apple. Click on other buttons it will remove the specified item from the array and print the results to the screen for you to confirm.

Note that this demo show you can remove an item from an array by doing this:

fruits.splice(position, number-to-remove);

…where position is the position of the item you wish to start removing items and number-to-remove is the number of items to remove starting at that position. Simple! Play with it and get used to it and it’ll make more sense.

Also note that we demonstrated how to build an array like:

var fruits = [“Banana”, “Orange”, “Apple”, “Mango”];

…and we all know that JavaScript uses Objects instead of traditional Arrays like PHP and other languages use, but it’s all the same for the purposes of this demo.

One more thing this demo shows people is how to get the number of items of an array or the length of an array in JavaScript. That is accomplished like this:

var arrayLength = fruits.length;

## Summary

Ab-a-dee-ab-ah-dee, that’s all folks!